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Table 1 Table summarizing the recent applications of functionalized MNPs in various biomedical applications with respective clinical trial identifiers, as appropriate

From: Emerging trends in the nanomedicine applications of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as novel therapies for acute and chronic diseases

Magnetic nanoparticle Functionalization Application Applicable model systems Clinical trial ID Ref#
In vitro In vivo
Feredix Dextran-coated SPION Liver, spleen, bone marrow imaging    Discontinued (toxicity) [30]
Magnablate Iron nanoparticles Thermal ablation   Prostate cancer NCT02033447 [136]
Feraheme/ferumoxytol Iron oxide-carboxymethyl dextran Monitor response to bevacizumab therapy   Glioma NCT00769093 [124, 135]
Iron oxide-carboxymethyl dextran Localize lymph node metastases   Pancreatic cancer NCT00920023 [124, 135]
Iron oxide-carboxymethyl dextran Detect recent myocardial infarction   Myocardial infarction NCT01995799 [124, 135]
Iron oxide-carboxymethyl dextran Vascular imaging   Migraine NCT02549898 [124, 135]
VEGF-165 peptide coupling Cardiovascular imaging/VEGF delivery HUVEC    [85]
Iron-oxide-semi-synthetic carbohydrate shell Iron deficiency anemia, chronic kidney disease   i.v injection in patients NCT00233597 [126]
Ferumoxide Iron oxide-dextran Labeling of inflammed cells   MRI imaging of patient forearm NCT01169935 [88]
FIONs PEG-phospholipid Pancreatic islet graft imaging   Rat liver   [173]
Ferrotran® (Ferumoxtran-10) Iron oxide-dextran Prostrate cancer   Lymph node imaging NCT04261777 [174]
(Gal-PEI-SPIO) Galactose (Gal) and polyethylenimine (PEI)-modified MNP siRNA duplexes targeting c-Met Hepa1–6 cells Hepatic tumor model in C57BL/6 mice   [175]
(ZnFe2O4-mSi)core nanoparticle Magnetic zinc-doped iron oxide with mesoporous silica shell let-7a microRNA + doxorubicin payload Hela cells Xenografted nude mice   [21]
Magnetic nanoparticle formulation (MNPF) beta-Cyclodextrin and PEI coated iron oxide core miR-145 delivery HPAF-II, AsPC-1    [176]
MPEI-PEG-magnetic nanoparticles PEI and PEG coated iron oxide core miR-205 payload delivery C4–2, PC-3 cells    [177]
Fe3O4-SPION Folic acid (FA) + disulfide-(PEG)-conjugated (PEI) complexed MRI, siRNA delivery in gastric cancer SGC-7901    [178]
SPION T40 dextran coated, epichlorohydrine stabilized MRI of lymph node, liver, intestine   Pig model   [179]
PEI nanoparticle Fe3O4-PEG-LAC-chitosan functionalized Survivin-siRNA targeted delivery MCF-7, K562 cells    [147, 180]
SPION Gemcitabine (Gem)-loaded PLGA-PEG functionalized Targeted drug delivery MCF-7    [21]
Iron oxide NP Chitosan coated, gemcitabine (Gem)-loaded Targeted drug delivery SKBR and MCF-7    [181]
SPIONs Daunomycin-loaded Targeted drug delivery HeLa    [182]
PSMA targeted docetaxel-loaded Targeted delivery PC-3    [127]
Ferumoxide Poly-l-lysine coated Magnetic targeting in stroke HB1.F3 Rat   [183]
Paramagnetic perfluorocarbon nanoparticle Fumagillin loaded, rapamycin loaded, PEG-PEI-gadolinium: ETPA conjugated αvβ3-integrin-targeted systemic delivery   Rabbit   [184, 185]
Rapamycin loaded, PEG-PEI-gadolinium: ETPA conjugated avb3-targeted local catheter delivery   Rabbit   [185]
IONPs Polyacrylic acid-co-maleic acid (PAM) coated tPA delivery HUVEC Rats, human blood   [186,187,188]
Amine PEG coated with BSA/ATF protein surface conjugation Urokinase delivery PANC02 Mice   [189]
Streptavidin-coated miRNA-141 detection   Human serum   [42, 190]
Streptavidin coated biotin labeled miR-21 detection LC–ESI–MS-MS-based MCF-7   [191]
EDT coated and DOX loaded miR-155 bEnd.3, MDCK-MDR, U251    [130]
Streptavidin-coated and HepB Ab conjugated Electrochemical detection of HepB Sandwich ELISA-based    [192]
Streptavidin-coated and biotinylated HIV-DNA probe conjugate Viral detection Electrical impedence based    [193]
Streptavidin-coated miRNA detection (let-7b) SEM, DLS based characterization    [194]
Fe3O4-virus-magnetic-MIPs (virus-MMIPs) Green self-polymerization strategy using dopmaine imprinting Hep A virus detection CHO cells Human serum sample   [195]
Fe3O4 NPs PEI coated Genome editing by CRISPR/Cas9 HEK-293 cells    [196]
Superparamagnetic particles Tosyl group and Influenza protein coated Viral detection by immunomagnetic assay   Saliva sample   [197]
Graphene oxide MNP Carboxyl group miR-122 Fluorescein-labeled HRP-CRET    [198]
Zinc ferrite (ZnFe) Silica coated and amino (–NH2) modified with carboxylic polymers SARS-CoV-2 RNA capture Automated in vitro RNA extraction    [156]
BNF-80 Coated with protein A and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody SARS-CoV-2 (virus) detection Spectroscopy-based    [10]
Fe3O4 NPs Amino (–NH2) modified and poly amino coated to generate poly-NH2-MNPs SARS-CoV-2 RNA capture and detection Spectroscopy and qPCR-based Nasopharyngeal swab samples   [157]