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Table 1 Application of nanotechnology in early diagnosis and comprehensive treatment of gastrointestinal cancer

From: Application of nanotechnology in the early diagnosis and comprehensive treatment of gastrointestinal cancer

  Approaches Advantages Limitations Nanotechnology Joint nanotechnology References
Diagnosis Endoscope Convenient and efficient;Direct observation Poor identification of small lesions; Strong subjectivity SERS NPs Capsule endoscopy Confocal laser microendoscopy Improve sensitive differentiation of small and other difficult-to-detect lesions Highly targeted [56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67]
Tumour Markers Convenient, high clinical value, Limited level of expression, Susceptible to interference, Invasive Nanobiosensors, SiNWs, SiNW-FETs, QDs 1. Higher accuracy and sensitivity of detection
2. Easier operation
3. Noninvasive
MRI High soft tissue contrast and no ionising radiation Nonspecific, Rapid clearance, Tissue deposition Gd-Liposomes and Gd- nanocomplexes,
1, High biocompatibility
2, Highly targeted
3, Higher detection accuracy and sensitivity
CT Fast scanning time, Lower cost, High spatial resolution Limited soft tissue identification, Low contrast accumulation AuNPs/GNRs, AuNCs, SPOIN, WS2 nanosheets, WO2.9 nanorods 1, Enhanced accuracy and sensitivity
2, Remarkable imaging effect
3, No toxicity
4, Multimodal imaging
PET High sensitivity and specificity; Easy to find metastatic lesions High costs False positives in patients with inflammatory conditions Dendritic macromolecular systems and extracellular vesicular nanoprobes 1. Reduce false positives
2. Non-toxic
3. Highly targeted
Fluorescence imaging Fast imaging, High sensitivity With longer wavelength, the quality of tissue fluorescence and scattering decreases ICG-Liposomes; Upconversion nanoparticles 1. Increased diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity
2. High optical stability
3. No toxicity
Treatment Intraoperative navigation and surgery Minimally invasive Poor localization of tumour margins and tumours ICG-SPION Cluster, NIRF with endoscopy, SERS/SERRS NPs 1. Increased sensitivity and resolution at tumour margins
2. High tissue penetration
[99, 112,113,114,115,116,117]
Chemotherapy Good therapeutic effect Low solubility, poor permeability, Non-specific targeting, Dose-dependent toxicity Liposomal,
Nanogel, MOF
1. Increased effectiveness of chemotherapy
2. Less toxic side effects of chemotherapy
3.Highly targeted
[151,152,153,154,155,156,157, 160,161,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169]
Targeted therapy Well-targeted and low toxic side effects Drug resistance, Insufficient bioavailability,
Insufficient controlled release
Graphene quantum dots
1. Improving the bioavailability of delivered drugs
2. Higher targeting performance
3. Targeted controlled release
Phototherapy High temporal selectivity and low side effects and low drug resistance Low photothermal conversion efficiency, irradiation depth and irradiation accuracy NIRF probe bound gold nanorods and nanoporphyrin micelles; 1. Higher photothermal conversion efficiency
2. Highly targeted
3. Combination of multiple treatment modalities
[124,125,126,127, 131,132,133,134]
Combination therapy High treatment efficiency and Providing access to treatment for extreme malignancies   Trigger liposomes,
Core–shell nanoparticles,
Nanoporphyrin micelles;
1、High treatment efficiency
2、providing access to treatment for extreme malignancies
  1. SERS Surface-enhanced raman scattering; NP Nanoparticles; SiNWs Silicon nanowires; SiNWFETs Silicon nanowire field-effect transistors; QDs Quantum dots; SPOIN Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles; AuNPs Gold nanoparticles; GNRs Gold nanorods; AuNCs Gold nanocluster; ICG Indocyanine green; SERRS Surface-enhanced resonance raman spectroscopy; NIRF Near infrared fluorescence; CS Chitosan; MOF Metal-organicframeworks; PLGA poly lactic-co-glycolic acid; ND Nanodiamond; PVD Pyoverdine