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Table 1 Application of nanotechnology in early diagnosis and comprehensive treatment of gastrointestinal cancer

From: Application of nanotechnology in the early diagnosis and comprehensive treatment of gastrointestinal cancer

  Approaches Advantages Limitations Nanotechnology Joint nanotechnology References
Diagnosis Endoscope Convenient and efficient;Direct observation Poor identification of small lesions; Strong subjectivity SERS NPs Capsule endoscopy Confocal laser microendoscopy Improve sensitive differentiation of small and other difficult-to-detect lesions Highly targeted [56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67]
Tumour Markers Convenient, high clinical value, Limited level of expression, Susceptible to interference, Invasive Nanobiosensors, SiNWs, SiNW-FETs, QDs 1. Higher accuracy and sensitivity of detection
2. Easier operation
3. Noninvasive
[73,74,75,76,77,78,79,80]
MRI High soft tissue contrast and no ionising radiation Nonspecific, Rapid clearance, Tissue deposition Gd-Liposomes and Gd- nanocomplexes,
SPOIN
1, High biocompatibility
2, Highly targeted
3, Higher detection accuracy and sensitivity
[81,82,83,84,85,86,87,88,89]
CT Fast scanning time, Lower cost, High spatial resolution Limited soft tissue identification, Low contrast accumulation AuNPs/GNRs, AuNCs, SPOIN, WS2 nanosheets, WO2.9 nanorods 1, Enhanced accuracy and sensitivity
2, Remarkable imaging effect
3, No toxicity
4, Multimodal imaging
[93,94,95,96,97]
PET High sensitivity and specificity; Easy to find metastatic lesions High costs False positives in patients with inflammatory conditions Dendritic macromolecular systems and extracellular vesicular nanoprobes 1. Reduce false positives
2. Non-toxic
3. Highly targeted
[99]
Fluorescence imaging Fast imaging, High sensitivity With longer wavelength, the quality of tissue fluorescence and scattering decreases ICG-Liposomes; Upconversion nanoparticles 1. Increased diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity
2. High optical stability
3. No toxicity
[106,107,108,109]
Treatment Intraoperative navigation and surgery Minimally invasive Poor localization of tumour margins and tumours ICG-SPION Cluster, NIRF with endoscopy, SERS/SERRS NPs 1. Increased sensitivity and resolution at tumour margins
2. High tissue penetration
[99, 112,113,114,115,116,117]
Chemotherapy Good therapeutic effect Low solubility, poor permeability, Non-specific targeting, Dose-dependent toxicity Liposomal,
Albumin,
CS NPs, PLGA NPs,
Nanogel, MOF
1. Increased effectiveness of chemotherapy
2. Less toxic side effects of chemotherapy
3.Highly targeted
[151,152,153,154,155,156,157, 160,161,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169]
Targeted therapy Well-targeted and low toxic side effects Drug resistance, Insufficient bioavailability,
Insufficient controlled release
AuNPs,
ND, PLGA NPs
SPION/PVD;
Graphene quantum dots
1. Improving the bioavailability of delivered drugs
2. Higher targeting performance
3. Targeted controlled release
[172,173,174,175,176,177,178,179,180]
Phototherapy High temporal selectivity and low side effects and low drug resistance Low photothermal conversion efficiency, irradiation depth and irradiation accuracy NIRF probe bound gold nanorods and nanoporphyrin micelles; 1. Higher photothermal conversion efficiency
2. Highly targeted
3. Combination of multiple treatment modalities
[124,125,126,127, 131,132,133,134]
Combination therapy High treatment efficiency and Providing access to treatment for extreme malignancies   Trigger liposomes,
AuNPs,
Core–shell nanoparticles,
Nanoporphyrin micelles;
1、High treatment efficiency
2、providing access to treatment for extreme malignancies
[181,182,183,184,185]
  1. SERS Surface-enhanced raman scattering; NP Nanoparticles; SiNWs Silicon nanowires; SiNWFETs Silicon nanowire field-effect transistors; QDs Quantum dots; SPOIN Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles; AuNPs Gold nanoparticles; GNRs Gold nanorods; AuNCs Gold nanocluster; ICG Indocyanine green; SERRS Surface-enhanced resonance raman spectroscopy; NIRF Near infrared fluorescence; CS Chitosan; MOF Metal-organicframeworks; PLGA poly lactic-co-glycolic acid; ND Nanodiamond; PVD Pyoverdine