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Table 1 Plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles

From: A review on biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their biocidal properties

Plant Plant part Size and shape Phytoconstituents responsible for reduction of silver nitrate Key references
Aloe vera Leaf gel (removed skin) 5–50 nm; octahedron Flavanones and terpenoids Logaranjan et al. [35]
Leaf 70.7–192.02 nm; spherical (size varies through change of times and temperatures) Lignin, hemicellulose and pectins Tippayawat et al. [36]
Leaf Size varies in accordance to different parameters; spherical Flavonoids, terpenoids and phenols Moosa et al. [37]
Mangifera indica Seed 14 nm; spherical and hexagonal Phenolic compounds, gallotannins and tannin Sreekanth et al. [38]
Erigeron bonariensis Leaf 13 nm; spherical Flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, triterpenes, sugars and caffeoyl derivatives Kumar et al. [39]
Myristica fragrans Bark and seeds Spherical, polydispersed Secondary metabolites Jelin et al. [40]
Momordica charantia Leaf 11 nm; spherical Momorcharins, momordenol, momordicius, momordin, momordolo, charantin, charine, cucuritanes, cucurbitns, goyaglycosides and goyasaponins Ajitha et al. [41]
Carambola Fruit 16, 13, 12 nm at pH 4, 7, 10 respectively Polysaccharides, polyols and ascorbic acid Chowdhury et al. [42]
Rubus glaucus Fruit 12–50 nm; spherical Phenolic groups and flavonoids Kumar et al. [43]
Prunus serotina Fruit 20–80 nm (blue LED) 40–100 nm (white solar); spherical Chlorogenic acid, catechin, proanthocyanidin, and flavonol glycosides Kumar et al. [44]
Piper nigrum Seeds 10–60 nm; rod shaped Polysaccharides, amino acids, alkaloids, proteins and vitamins Mohapatra et al. [45]
Nigella sativa Leaf 15 nm; spherical Alkaloids, ascorbic acid, saponins, glycosides, amino acids, flavonoids like catechin, apigenin, gallic acid and benzoates especially vanillic acid Amooaghaie et al. [46]
Calotropis gigantean Flower 10–50 nm; spherical Pavani et al. [47]
Acmella oleracea Flower 2–20 nm; spherical Raj et al. [48]
Piper betle Leaf 48–83 nm; spherical Allylic benzenes, phenolic, amino acids, proteins, alcoholic compounds, terpenes and terpenoids Kamachandran et al. [49]
Morinda tinctoria Leaf 80–100 nm; spherical and rod Ascorbic acid, niacin, copper and iron Vennila and Prabha [50]
Trigonella foenum-graecum Seeds 20–50 nm; spherical Saponins and alkaloids Meena and Chouhan [51]
Picrasma quassioides Bark 17.5–66.5 nm; spherical Sreekanth et al. [52]
Rosa ‘Andeli’ Petals 0.5–1.4 nm; spherical Polyphenols and flavonoids Suarez-Cerda et al. [53]
Salvadora persica Stem 1–6 nm; spherical Phenolic compounds Tahir et al. [54]
Artemisia absinthium   5–20 nm; round shaped Phenolic compounds and flavonoids Ali et al. [55]
Chelidonium majus Aerial parts DLS-253.3 nm; spherical, quasi-spherical Flavonoids and alkaloids Barbinta-Patrascu et al. [56]
Calotropis procera Flower 35 nm; face centered cubic Tannins, triterpenes, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides Babu and Prabu [57]
Sterculia acuminata Fruit ~ 10 nm; spherical Ascorbic acid, gallic acid, phenolic compounds, pyrogallol, methyl gallate and polyphenolic compounds Bogireddy et al. [58]
Terminalia cuneata Bark 25–50 nm; spherical Tannins, saponins, triterpenoids, flavonoids, gallic acid, ellagic acid and phytosterols Edison et al. [59]
Cirsium japonicum Plant 4–8 nm; spherical Saponins, proteins and flavonoids Khan et al. [60]
Isatis tinctoria Plant 10–15 nm; spherical Saponins and flavonoids Ahmad et al. [61]
Aegle marmelos Fruit 22.5 nm; spherical, hexagonal, roughly circular Phytosterols, flavonoids, alkaloids, triterpenoids and amino acids Velmurugan et al. [62]
Trachyspermum ammi Seeds 36 nm; cubic Fatty acids, proteins, flavonoids and alkaloids Chouhanand Meena [63]
Eucalyptus globulus Leaf 1.9–4.3 and 5–25 nm with and without microwave treatment respectively Alkaloids and flavonoids Ali et al. [64]
Cydonia oblonga Seeds 38 nm; face-centered cubic Flavonones, terpenoids, proteins and amino acids Zia et al. [65]
Hydrocotyle asiatica Leaf 21 nm; spherical Flavonoids and glycosides Devi et al. [66]
Lantana camara Leaf 33.8 nm; spherical Flavonoids, proteins, saccharides secondary metabolites like alkaloids, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, steroids and triterpenoids Manjamadha and Muthukumar [67]
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Seeds 50–80 nm; spherical Carbohydrates and phenolic compounds Basu et al. [68]
Pennyroyal sp. Leaf 19.14 ± 9.791 nm; spherical Sedaghat et al. [69]
Saraca indica Leaf 23 ± 2 nm; spherical Flavonoids and steroids Perugu et al. [70]
Terminalia chebula Fruit 30 nm; distorted spherical Edison et al. [71]
Euphorbia amygdaloides Plant 7–20 nm; spherical Cicek et al. [72]
Pedalium murex Leaf 50 nm; spherical Flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, rosins, saponins and proteins Anandalakshmi et al. [73]
Chelidonium majus Root 15.42 nm; spherical Alishah et al. [74]
Salacia chinensis Powdered plant 20–80 nm; spherical, rods, triangular, hexagonal Flavonoids, saponins, proteins, carbohydrates and phenolics Jadhav et al. [75]
Tamarindus indica Seed coat ~ 12.73 nm Flavonoids, tannin and saponins, Ramamurthi et al. [76]
Parkia roxburghii Leaf 5–25 nm; poly dispersped, quasi-spherical Proteins Paul et al. [77]
Aristolochia indica Leaf 32–55 nm; spherical Shanmugam et al. [78]
Cerasus serrulata Leaf 10–50 nm; spherical Alcohol and phenolic compounds and proteins Karthik et al. [79]
Matricaria camomilia Flower 8–35 nm; spherical Terpenoids, flavones and polysaccharides Parlinska-Wojtan et al. [80]
Flower ~ 5.5 nm; spherical Phenolics, carbonyl and amines or alcohol groups Ocsoy et al. [81]
Fruits ~ 15.4 nm; spherical Phenolics, flavonoids, terpenoids and vitamins Swamy et al. [82]
Alpinia calcarata Root 5–15 nm; quasi-spherical Proteins, flavonoids and polyphenols Pugazhendhi et al. [83]
Salvinia molesta Leaf 12.46 nm; spherical Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, sugars and proteins Verma et al. [84]
Helicteres isora Root 16–95 nm; spherical Steroids, terpenoids, alkaloids, carbohydrates and phenolic compounds Bhakya et al. [85]
Mukia maderaspatana Leaf 158 nm; spherical Phenolic compounds Harshiny et al. [86]
Ficus benghalensis and Azadirachta indica Bark 60 nm; spherical Flavonoids, terpenoids and phenols Nayak et al. [87]
Azadirachta indica Leaf 34 nm; spherical and irregular shape Flavanoids and terpenoids Ahmed et al. [88]
Adathoda vasica Leaf 10–50 nm; spherical Alkaloids compounds Latha et al. [89]
Amaranthus gangeticus Leaf 11–15 nm; globular and polycrystalline Amino acids Kolya et al. [90]
Phlomis Leaf 25 nm; spherical Glycosides such as flavonoids, iridoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids and other phenolic compounds Allafchian et al. [91]
Syzygium alternifolium Fruit 4–48 nm; spherical Phenols and primary amines of proteins Yugandhar et al. [92]
Afzelia quanzensis Bark 10–80 nm; spherical Proteins Moyo et al. [93]
Allamanda cathartica Flower 39 nm; spherical (E,E)-geranyl linalool, n-pentacosane, 1,8-cineole and n-tricosane Karunakaran et al. [94]
Carica papaya Peel 10–30 nm; spherical Vitamins (C, K, E), amino acids, carbohydrates, β-carotene, lycopene and polyphenols Kokila et al. [95]
Vitis vinifera Leaf 200 nm; spherical Hydroxyl groups and phenolic compounds mainly myricetin, ellagic acid, kaempferol and gallic acid El-Sherbiny et al. [96]
Solanum indicum Leaf 10–50 nm; spherical Phenolic compounds Sengottaiyan et al. [97]
Tectona grandis Leaf 26–28 nm; spherical Phenols Devadiga et al. [98]
Soymida febrifuga Leaf 10–20 nm; spherical Phenolic groups, amino acids, aliphatic and aromatic amines, amide-I and amide-II Sowmyyan and Lakshmi [99]
Cardiospermum halicacabum Leaf SEM-less than 100 nm; spherical Polyphenols and phenol Sundararajan et al. [100]
Ammannia baccifera   105–125 nm; spherical Polyphenols, flavonoids and proteins Jadhav et al. [101]
Diospyros paniculata Root 17 nm (avg); spherical Phenolics and proteins Rao et al. [102]
Simarouba glauca Leaf 33–50 nm; spherical Amino groups and hydroxyl groups Kanchana and Zantye [103]
Origanum majorana and Citrus sinensis Leaf 40–70 nm; feather and 26–60 nm; spherical, cubical respectively Proteins and phenolic compounds Singh et al. [104]
Salmalia malabarica Gum 7 ± 2 nm; spherical Carbonyl and hydroxyl group Krishna et al. [105]
Psidium guajava Leaf 10–90 nm; spherical Leucocyanidin, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, carotenes, vitamin C, B6 and carbohydrates Bose and Chatterjee [106]
Allium cepa Bulb Balamanikandan et al. [107]
Justicia glauca Leaf 10–20 nm; spherical Phenolic compounds Awad et al. [108]
Skimmia laureola Leaf Irregular, spherical, hexagonal Tritepenoids, skimmidiol and coumarins Ahmed et al. [109]
Andrographis echioides Leaf ~ 68.06 nm; cubic Carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinones, glycosides, triterpenoids, phenols, steroids, phytosteroids and anthraquinones Elangovan et al. [110]
Putranjiva roxburghii Leaf 5.74 nm; spherical Amino groups Ali et al. [111]
Ixora coccinea Flower 5–10 nm; spherical Alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes and carbohydrates Nalvolthula et al. [112]
Emblica officinalis Fruit 10–70 nm; spherical Alkaloids, phenolic compounds, amino acids and tannins Ramesh et al. [113]
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Petals ~ 18.79 nm; spherical Proteins Nayak et al. [114]
Bauhinia variegata Leaf 32 nm; spherical, triangular, truncated triangles, decahedral Reducing sugar, saponins, anthraquinone, alkaloids and terpenoids Govindarajan et al. [115]
Pteridium aquilinum Leaf SEM-35–65 nm; spherical Phenols, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, proteins, carbohydrates, saponins. glycosides, steroids and triterpenoids Panneerselvam et al. [116]
Aristolochia indica Leaf 30–55 nm; spherical and cubical Phenols Murugan et al. [117]
Cassia roxburghii Leaf ~ 32 nm; spherical, triangular, truncated triangles, decahedral Muthukumaran et al. [118]
Anisomeles indica Leaf TEM-18–35 nm; SEM-50–100 nm; spherical Alcohols, phenols and carboxylic group Govindarajan et al. [119]
Hybanthus enneaspermus Plant 16–26 nm; spherical, hexagonal, triangular Proteins Suman et al. [120]
Amaranthus dubius Leaf, stem, root Stem: 30–35 nm; Root: 18–21 nm; Leaf: 18–21 nm Polyphenol compounds and aldehydes Sigamioney et al. [121]
Ziziphus jujuba Fruit 25.75 nm; spherical Alcohols and phenols Sreekanth et al. [122]
Chrysophyllum oliviforme Leaf 25 nm; flower Flavonoids, saponins, catechic tannins, traces of anthraquinones, reducing sugars and phenolic compounds Varghese et al. [123]
Plumeria alba Flowers ~ 36.19 nm; spherical Amino, carboxylic and sulfhydryls Mata et al. [124]
Impatiens balsamina Flowers 5–40 nm; spherical Alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes and carbohydrates Nalavothula et al. [125]
Fraxinus excelsior Leaf 25–40 nm; spherical and polydisperse Flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, amino acid residues and peptides of proteins Parveen et al. [126]
Pongamia pinnata Leaf AFM-15–35 nm; spherical Alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, tannins, phenolic compounds and fat Priya et al. [127]
Pongamia pinnata Seed 5–30 nm; spherical Pongaflavanol, tunicatachalcone, pongamol, galactoside and glybanchalcone Beg et al. [128]
Areca catechu Nut 18.2 and 24.3 nm; spherical Polyphenols Rajan et al. [129]
Ficus talboti Leaf 9–12 nm; spherical Flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, phenolic compounds, tannins, phytosterol and glycosides Arunachalam et al. [130]
Sida cordifolia Leaf 10–30 nm; spherical, prism Alkaloids, quinazolines, cryptoleptins, phytosterols, flavonoids and saponins Srinithya et al. [131]
Clerodendrum phlomidis Leaf TEM 10–15 nm; SEM 23–42 nm; spherical Phenolics, flavonoids, terpenoids and steroids Sriranjani et al. [132]
Theobroma cacao Pod husk 4–32 nm; face-centered cubic Proteins and phenolic compounds Lateef et al. [133]
Ficus carica Fruit 20–80 nm (thermal approach), 10–30 nm (ultra sonication approach); spherical Kumar et al. [134]
Parkia speciosa Hassk Pod 20–50 nm; predominantly spherical Fatimah [135]
Boerhaavia diffusa Whole plants 25 nm; spherical   Vijay Kumar et al. [136]
Pelargonium endlicherianum Roots Different size; spherical Gallic acid, apocynin and quercetin Karatoprak et al. [137]
Artocarpus heterophyllus Seeds 10.78 nm; irregular Lectin—a single major protein Jagtap and Bapat [138]
Ceropegia thwaitesii Leaf 100 nm; spherical Triterpenoids; and methoxy groups of protein Muthukrishnan et al. [139]
Alternanthera sessilis Leaf 30 nm; various shape Alkaloid, tannins, ascorbic acid, carbohydrates and proteins Niraimathi et al. [140]
Dryopteris crassirhizoma Rhizome 5–60 nm; almost spherical Alcohol, amines, alkanes, carboxylic acid and or ester Lee et al. [141]
Leptadenia reticulate Leaf 50–70 nm; crystalline, face centered and spherical Phenolics, terpenoids, polysaccharides and flavones Swamy et al. [142]
Ipomoea batatas Root TEM 30–120 nm; AFM 50–200 nm; polygonal Glycoalkaloids, mucin, dioscin, choline, polyphenols and anthocyanins Wang et al. [143]
Sambucus nigra Fruit 26 nm; spherical Polyphenols Moldovan et al. [144]
Millettia pinnata Flower 16–38 nm; spherical Multi-functional aromatic gropus Rajakumar et al. [145]
Coptis chinensis Plant extract 15 nm; spherical Polyphenols Ahmad et al. [146]
Lycium barbarum Fruit 3–15 nm; spherical Tannias, flavanoids, ascorbic acid and alkaloids Dong et al. [147]
Embelia ribes Seed 20–30 nm; crystalline, uniform and spherical Alkaloids, quinones, proteins, reducing sugars and saponins Dhayalan et al. [148]
 Zizyphus xylopyrus Bark 60–70 nm; spherical Reducing agents Maria et al. [149]