Skip to main content

Table 1 Overview of discussed graphene antibody-based nanosensors

From: Recent advances in graphene-based biosensor technology with applications in life sciences

Target Immunosensor design Detection methods Antibody Antibody binding Detection limit Refs.
Escherichia coli Graphene oxide cellulose nanopaper Photoluminescence Antihuman IgG Ab Conjugation process 1.60 ng/mL [50]
Graphene/PMMA Electrical Anti E. coli O157:H7 antibody 10 CFU/mL [38]
Graphene Electrical Anti-E. coli antibody Via PASE linker 10 CFU/mL [31]
Graphene Electrical Anti-E. coli O157:H7 antibodies Via PASE linker 10–107 cells/mL [32]
Reduced graphene oxide Electrical Generic anti-E. coli antibody EDC–NHS chemistry 103 CFU/mL [37]
Salmonella typhimurium GO–AgNPs nano composite Cyclic voltammetry Anti-S. typhimurium EDC–NHS chemistry 10 CFU/mL [39]
Zika virus Graphene Electrical Anti-Zika NS1 NHS surface chemistry 0.45 nM [33]
Dengue virus Graphene oxide Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy 4G2 monoclonal antibody Electrostatic bond 0.12 PFU /mL [34]
Adenovirus Graphene quantum dots Optoelectronic Anti-adenovirus, Group II (HEV) polyclonal antibody Electrostatic bond 8.75 PFU/mL [51]
Avian influenza virus H7 Gold nanoparticle–graphene nano composites (AuNPs–G) Electrochemical immunosensor H7-polyclonal antibodies and H7-monoclonal antibodies EDC/NHS chemistry 1.6 pg/mL [41]
Influenza A virus Graphene oxide-MB–chitosan Electrochemical Monoclonal antibodies (H5N1 or H1N1) Covalent and crosslinked via chitosan 9.4 pM and 8.3 pM [48]
Cholera toxin Graphene–polypyrrole Surface plasmon resonance Anti-CT π–π interactions 4 pg/mL [52]
Rotavirus Graphene oxide Photoluminescence Rotavirus antibodies Carbodiimide-assisted amidation reaction 105 PFUmL [35]
Hepatitis C virus Graphene quantum dots with silver nanoparticles Electrochemical immunosensing Anti-HCV antibody NH2 group of antibody was covalent attachment to the AgNPs 3 fg/mL [40]
HIV Peptide- functionalized UCNPs to graphene oxide Fluorescence Anti-HIV-1 gp120 antibody π–π interactions 2 nM [47]
Celiac disease Polyamidoamine dendrimer with GQDs on AuNP embedded in MWCNT Electrochemical Anti-tTG antibody EDC/NHS chemistry 0.1 fg per 6 µL [46]
Alzheimer disease Magnetic core-plasmonic shell nanoparticle attached hybrid graphene oxide Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy Cy3 antibody Amine functionalization 100 fg/mL [44]
Cardiovascular diseases Graphene oxide Electrochemical PAC1 antibody EDC/NHS chemistry [36]
Hormones Reduced graphene oxide Electrochemical Anti-GHRL and anti-PYY EDC–NHS chemistry 1.0 pg/mL GHRL and 0.02 pg/mL PYY [53]
Cancer Magnetic Fe3O4@GO composites Electrochemical RAB0331 for PSA and Lifeome Biolabs/Cusabio EL008782HU-96 for PSMA EDC–NHSS 15 fg/mL for PSA and 4.8 fg/mL for PSMA [45]
Graphene–PYR–NHS Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy Monoclonal antibody anti-carcinoembryonic antigen Non-covalent modification less than 100 pg/mL [54]
Reduced graphene and gold nano particle Electrochemical Anti-estradiol antibody (curve) EDC–NHS 0.1 fmol  [42]
Reduced graphene oxide gold nano particle Electrochemical p53 antibodies Electrostatic interactions 0.088 pg/mL [43]
β-cyclodextrin functionalized graphene nanosheet Electrochemical CEA primary antibody (Ab1), and CEA secondary antibody (Ab2) EDC–NHS 20 fg/mL [49]