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Table 4 Recent studies using graphene-based materials to immobilize enzymes

From: Recent advances in graphene-based biosensor technology with applications in life sciences

Enzyme Immobilization platform Testing compound Detection method Attachment Range Refs.
Laccase, HRP Fe3O4–rGO Adsorption [109]
Laccase GO–rhodium nanoparticles 17β-estradiol Electrochemical Donor–acceptor interactions 0.9–11 pM [110]
Laccase Palladium–copper nanocages on rGO Phenol Electrochemical Adsorption 0.005–1.155 mM, 1.655–5.155 mM [111]
Laccase Yolk shell Fe2O3 2,6-dimethozyphenol Electrochemical Gluaraldehide reaction 0.025–750 μM [112]
Laccase Graphene–cellulose microfiber Catechol Amperometric Adsorption 0.085–209.7 μM [113]
Laccase MoS2 and graphene quantum dots Caffeic acid Electrochemical Electrostatic interaction 0.38–100 μM [126]
HRP CaCO3 microspheres encapsulated with a graphene capsule Hydrogen peroxide Electrochemical Absorption  0.01–12 mM [114]
HRP 3D graphene/methylene blue-carbon nanotubes Hydrogen peroxide Electrochemical In-situ self-polymerized polydopamine 0.2 μM–1.1 mM [127]
Bilirubin Oxidase Electrochemically reduced GO Adsorption [116]
GOx ZnS–graphene Hydrogen peroxide, glucose Electrochemical [117]
GOx Silk–graphene field effect transistor Glucose Electrical Hydrophobic interaction 0.1–10 mM [118]
GOx Nanostructured graphene with conducting polyaniline Glucose Electrochemical Adsorption 10.0 μM–1.48 mM [119]
GOx TiO2–GO–OISL Hydrogen peroxide Electrochemical Immobilization 1–120 μM [120]
GOx Chitosan/Nafion/Pt nanoparticle/SGGT Hydrogen peroxide, glucose    3–300 μM, 0.5 μM–1 mM [121]
GOx GO modified by amidation Glucose Carbodiimide coupling [122]
GOx 3D GO and PANI Glucose Electrochemical 0.07–1.10 mM [123]
GOx AuPd–rGO–polyimide Hydrogen peroxide, glucose Electrochemical Adsorption 0.004–1.0 mM, 0.024–4.6 mM [124]
GOx 3D graphene Glucose Electrochemical 0.3–6 mM [125]