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Table 7 Performance of composites, blends and hybrid materials based on synthetic polymers for ligament/tendon TE

From: Biodegradable polymer nanocomposites for ligament/tendon tissue engineering

MaterialScaffoldApplicationIn vivo/in vitroMechanical performanceBiological performanceRefs.
Young’s modulus(MPa)Max. strength(MPa)Max. load (N)
PGA-PLATwo ends cord: inner part: PGA unwoven fibers outer part: knitted PGA and PLA fibersTendonIn vitro (AMSCs); in vivo, rabbit modelND53.71 ± 22.32NDAMSCs adhesion and proliferation, ECM synthesis
At 12 weeks post-repair, middle part with organized Col pattern and host inflammatory cells
At 45 weeks, mature elongated tendons, aligned Col fibers; Scaffold completely degraded
PLA-GNP; PLA-(CNT-COOH)Melt-blended films of:
(ii) PLA/GNP
Ligament/tendonIn vitro (HDF), in vivo, mice model(i) 4860 ± 470
(ii) 4920 ± 150
(i) 72.22 ± 1.52
(ii) 58.56 ± 3.99
NDIn vitro: Cell adhesion, proliferation; (i) Higher proliferation compared to (ii)
In vivo: localized inflammatory response
Livers with no toxicity for (i), (ii)
[111, 112]
(ii) PLGA yarns
(iii) Two ends Knitted (PLLA-PLGA)
LigamentND(iii) ~ 287(iii) ~ 60(iii) 72ND[35]
Two ends Knitted (PLLA-PLGA): (i) no cells, no fascia lata wrap
(ii) MSCs seeded
(iii) MSCs seeded + fascia wrap
(iv) fascia lata wrap
LigamentIn vivo, rabbit modelNDND(i) 14.0 ± 7.8
(ii) 14.9 ± 6.6
(iii) 20.9 ± 4.5
(iv) 15.8 ± 6.8 (at 20 weeks post-surgery)
(i)–(iv) Cellular spread and elongation; few macrophages; ECM synthesis
(i), (ii) Non parallel fibroblasts
(iii), (iv) Higher Col type I and type III
PLLA-PEGDAa(i) Braid-twist fibrous PLLA and crosslinked PEGDA hydrogel
(ii) Braid twist (no hydrogel)
LigamentIn vitro (primary rabbit PT fibroblasts)(i) 437 ± 38
(ii) ND
(i) 36 ± 3
(ii) ND
ND(i) Higher cell proliferation than (ii), at day 14 of culture
(i), (ii) Comparable cell proliferation, at day 21 and 28 of culture
PLA-Hydroxyapatite3D printed PLA scaffold: (i) No coating
(ii) Coated with hydroxyapatite
(iii) Coated with hydroxyapatite + MSCs suspended in hydrogel
LigamentIn vitro (rabbit MSCs); in vivo, rabbit modelNDIn vitro: (iii) Higher cell proliferation and osteogenic markers, compared to (i), (ii)
In vivo: (iii) After 4 weeks post-surgery, more chondrocytes and cartilage matrix in the interface with the bone; higher Col fibers, after 12 weeks
  1. aPolyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA)