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Table 1 The doping ratio of different ions of UCNP and their major emission wavelength

From: Recent progress in the development of upconversion nanomaterials in bioimaging and disease treatment

Dopant ions and compositional ion Major emissions (nm) References
Host lattice Sensitizer Activator Shell Blue Green Red
β-NaYF4 20%Yb 2%Er   450, 476 520 654 Ref. [51]
20%Yb 0.2%Tm 540 Ref. [38]
20%Yb 2%Ho 541 Ref. [38]
β-NaYF4 25%Yb 0.3%Tm 20%Yb, 2%Er 450 520 653 Ref .[52]
475 540
Li+ doped β-NaYF4 20%Yb 0.5%Tm   452, 479   650 Ref.[39]
Mn+ doped β-NaYF4 20%Yb 2%Er     657 Ref. [53]
β-NaYF4 18.6%Yb 2.2%Er TRITC-SiO2 407    Ref. [40]
25%Yb 0.3%Tm SiO2 450, 479 521, 539 651 Ref. [54]
25%Yb 0.3%Tm FITC-SiO2 450, 479 521, 539, 580 651 Ref. [41]
25%Yb 0.3%Tm QD-SiO2 450, 479 540 605 Ref. [41]
α-NaYF4 20%Yb 2%Er   411   660 Ref. [55]
20%Yb 0.2%Tm 450 540 644 Ref. [42]
20%Yb 0.2%Er 475 525 693 Ref. [42]