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Table 2 Selected relevant pre-clinical assays based on novel drug-loaded polymeric nanoparticles for the treatment of bacterial pulmonary infections

From: State-of-the-art polymeric nanoparticles as promising therapeutic tools against human bacterial infections

Bacteria Loaded molecule Polymeric matrix Surface modifications Dose Admin. route In vitro/In vivo Model Results Ref
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Chitosan Tri-mannose 100 µg/m Cell exposure A549 cell line
Hep G2 cell line
Both un-grafted and grafted PNPs are similarly internalized by macrophages
They profoundly remodel the response of M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages
mRNA sequencing shows nearly 900 genes to be differentially expressed due to tri-mannose grafting (which are enriched for pathways involved in cell metabolism)
Coya et al. [66]
Chlamydia psittaci C. psittaci Ags Chitosan 80 μL PNPs-Ags I.m
I.n
BALB/c mice PNPs-Ags mediate stronger humoral and mucosal responses
PNPs-Ags immunization remarkably reduces bacterial load and the degree of inflammation in the infected lungs
Furthermore, PNPs-Ags vaccination inhibits C. psittaci disseminating to various organs in vivo
Li et al. [70]
Mycobacterium tuberculosis H1 Ag PLGA 0.5 mg/mL Cell exposure THP-1 cell line H1-PNPs are efficiently internalized by the THP-1 human macrophages
Immunized mice show significant increase in the production of total serum IgG, its isotypes and inflammatory cytokines levels, compared to H1 alone
H1 NP–vaccinated mice display significant reductions in lung and spleen bacillary load, and prolonged survival
Malik et al. [67]
50 μg PNPs/mouse I.p C57BL/6 mice
Pseudomonas aeruginosa PopB/PcrH PLGA 20 µL PNPs / mouse I.p FVB/N mice PNPs-immunized mice show 3–fourfold higher Th17 responses both in the lung and in the spleen compared to mice immunized with empty PNPs or PopB/PcrH alone
PNPs-immunized mice show significantly lower bacterial counts in the lungs and improved survival
Schaefers et al. [64]
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Tobramycin Alginate / Chitosan Dornase α DNase 250 μg/mL Injection Galleria mellonella Survival rates of 90% after injection of PNPs
A treatment with NPs prior to infection provides a longer antibiotic protection
DNase functionalization leads to a DNA degradation and improved NPs penetration
Tobramycin NPs both with and without DNase functionalisation, exhibits anti-pseudomonal effects
Deacon et al. [65]
  1. A549 human alveolar lung cell line, AMPs antimicrobial peptides, C. psittaci Ags Chlamydia psittaci antigens, H1 Ag bivalent antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ag85B and ESAT6 proteins, Hep G2 Human hepatocytes cell line, PopB/PcrH P. aeruginosa antigens, THP-1 human monocytic cell line