Skip to main content

Table 1 Physicochemical characteristics of the citric acid-based NPs investigated herein

From: Density of surface charge is a more predictive factor of the toxicity of cationic carbon nanoparticles than zeta potential

NP Passivation reagent ζ-potential
(mV)
Size
(nm)
Hydrodynamic diameter in saline (nm) Aggregation in culture medium Elemental composition Surface charge density (Qek)
N (%) C (%) H (%) (µmol/mg)
NP1 − 38.5 ± 1.9 28.5 24.7 ± 1.7 None 9.51 39.60 6.06 nd
NP2 DMEDA/PEG + 26.9 ± 1.6 16.3 17.7 ± 0.9 + 2.42 48.96 8.48 0.23
NP3 DMEDA + 21.0 ± 1.5 12.6 43.9 ± 2.4 ++ 12.77 35.64 6.99 0.78
NP4 PEHA + 20.6 ± 1.2 17.9 19.1 ± 2.0 None 12.32 26.89 7.35 1.35
NP5 bPEI600 + 23.9 ± 2.0 39.5 10.1 ± 0.4 ++ 14.58 28.97 7.37 4.39
NP6 bPEI25k + 22.7 ± 0.1 19.1 7.2 ± 0.1 ++ 11.80 26.64 6.95 2.95
  1. None: hydrodynamic diameter remaining less than 100 nm; +, partially aggregated (hydrodynamic diameter ranging between 100 and 500 nm); ++, highly aggregated (hydrodynamic diameter greater than 500 nm); –, not applicable; nd, not determined