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Table 1 SER-based nano-formulations for biological applications

From: Sericin based nanoformulations: a comprehensive review on molecular mechanisms of interaction with organisms to biological applications

Nanomaterial Active compound Method of synthesis NPs Properties Main characteristics/advantages References
Sericin-chitosan Doxorubicin Cross-linking method MD: 231 ± 7.3 nm; ZP: − 6.25 ± 1.2; PDI: 0.067 pH-dependent release of doxorubicin and increased cellular uptake in tumor acid environment. Self-stabilization and increased colloidal stability after freeze-drying and resistance of plasma protein adsorption. In vivo assays showed significant anti-tumoral activity with reduced doxorubicin cardiotoxicity [40]
Sericin- poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanoparticles - Self-assembly MD: 197.3 ± 46 nm Spherical nanoparticles are formed by hydrophobic interaction between sericin and PEG [78]
Sericin nanoparticles coated with poly-L-lysine Plasmid encoding a green fluorescent protein Desolvation method MD: 244.00 ± 8.48 nm; ZP: -29.7 ± 2.54 MV; PDI: 0.35 ± 0.07 Plasmid DNA was strongly packed to the NPs surface, which leads to significant transfection of mouse fibroblast after 72 h. No toxicity was observed [79]
Sericin-Poly(ethylcyanoacrylate) Nanospheres Fenofibrate Interfacial polymerization MD: 175 ± 12 nm; ZP: − 32.8 ± 1.0 mV; PDI: 0.201 Increased ~ twofold the drug absorption in the gastrointestinal tract compared to a non-encapsulated drug, reducing the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TG), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) [80]
Sericin-genipin nanoparticles Atorvastatin Desolvation-genipin crosslinking method DM: 166 ± 0.30 nm; ZP: − 38.28 mV; PDI: 0.225 Nanoparticles (10−1) enhanced the antihyperlipidemic activity in mouse models in comparison to a non-encapsulated drug at the same concentration. No cytotoxicity was observed to murine (J774) cells [81]
Sericin-folate nanoparticles Doxorrubicin (DOX) Self-assembly and chemical crosslinking DM: 53.8 ± 17.6 nm; ZP: -15.15 ± 1.51 mV The release of DOX is ~ fivefold higher in an acid environment than in a neutral condition. NPs were target to folate receptors of cancer cells and displayed good hemo-compatibility [7]
Sericin-chitosan nanoparticles Doxorrubicin (DOX) Physical and chemical crosslinking DM: 231 ± 7.3 nm; ZP: − 6.25 ± 1.2 mV; PDI: 0.067 pH-dependent release of DOX and increased cellular uptake in tumor acid environment (pH 6) [82]
Sericin-silver nanoparticles - Green reduction using sericin as reductant DM: 4 – 20 nm Significant inhibition of S. aureus growth at 25 mg.L−1 of nanoparticles. No cytotoxicity was observed to murine cells (3T3) under this concentration [57]
Sericin nanoparticles Resveratrol Desolvation method DM: 183.43 ± 7.23 nm; ZP: ~ -20 mV; PDI: 0.2 Significant inhibition of cancerous cell growth (human colorectal adenocarcinoma, Caco2) while no cytotoxicity was observed to normal skin fibroblasts (CRL-2522) [18]
Sericin-gellan gum-rice bran albumin nanocomposites Doxorubicin Self-assembly DM: 218 nm; ZP: -7.43 mV IC50 of DOX for breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) was reduced 1.8-fold after encapsulation. The survival rate of cancer cells was reduced by 42% after treatment with nanocomposites [83]
Sericin poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate) (PBLG) micelles Doxorubicin Self-assembly DM: 111.1 ± 0.7 nm; ZP: -25.4 ± 0.76 mV; PDI: 0.17 ± 0.01 The drug release was accelerated in the lysosomes under acid pH. Micelles induced 1.5-fold higher apoptosis in the breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) concerning the non-encapsulated drug. Suppression of tumor growth in vivo was 70% higher in mice-model treated with micelles in comparison to control [84]
Sericin-cholesterol-folate nano micelles IR780 Self-assembly DM: 140 nm Cancerous cells (Human papillomavirus-related endocervical adenocarcinoma, BGC-823) containing folate receptors efficiently internalized the nanoparticles, which results in cell toxicity after laser irradiation at 808 nm [85]
Sericin nanoparticles Curcumin Desolvation method DM: 278.15 ± 53 nm; ZP: -23.0 ± 3.59 mV; PDI: 0.54 ± 0.09 The best nanoparticle physicochemical characteristic was achieved with 1 mg.mL−1 of sericin, which results in 84.7% of encapsulation entrapment [86]
Sericin nanoparticles coated or not with poly-L-Lysine - Desolvation method DM: 16 to 156 nm; ZP: -34 to + 36.2 mV; PDI: 0.8 to 1 NPs produced with sericin (30–50 kDa) positively charged showed the strongest antibacterial effects in S. aureus and E. coli strains by enhancing ROS production [60]
Sponge nanocomposite of sericin-silver nanoparticles - Green reduction using sericin as reductant DM: 111.1 to 175 nm Both nanoparticles and sponge nanocomposites induced antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli. Antibacterial activity of sponge nanocomposites was concentration-dependent, being the best results achieved at 100 ppm of AgNPs [87]
  1. MD mean diameter, ZP Zeta potential, PDI polydispersity index