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Table 3 Analytical performances of urine-based biosensors

From: Advances in the development paradigm of biosample‐based biosensors for early ultrasensitive detection of alzheimer’s disease

Sensor type Target Analytical method Detection
Limit of detection Refs.
Fused silica column capillary with total length 42 cm and effective length 30 cm binding with anti-8-OHdG 8-OHdG Capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) detection - 0.18 fM [176]
Solid phase extraction (SPE) in C18/OH column and HPLC in 5µmC18 HPLC with 1 mL/min mobile phase flow rate 8-OHdG High performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) 7.0–700 nM/L 0.35 nM/L [42]
Antibody modified sandwich immunoassay AD7c-NTP ELISA - 0.48 ng/mL [17]
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane with monoclonal antibody Western blots - 0.04 ng/mL [177]
96-well microtiter plate coated with monoclonal antibody (N3I4) AD7c-NTP HPLC - 2.5 ng/mL [178]
Microtiter plate coated with bispecific receptor antibody having affinity for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and urinary NTP AD7c-NTP Enzyme-linked sandwich immunoassay (ELISA) - 26.8 ± 9.4 µg/mL [179]
32-well microtiter plates immunoassay NTP ELISA 10–60 µg/mL 10 µg/mL [180]
Rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) coated immunosensor AD7c-NTP ELISA - 32.76 ± 9.0 µg/mL [181]
Electro-polymerized Poly(neutral red) film modified with Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) embedded with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) using glutaraldehyde (GA) cross-linker Acetylcholine (Ach) CV and EIS - 1.04 µM [182]
Rare-earth-doped (lanthanide-doped) upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) Dopamine (DA) Rayleigh light scattering 0–300 µM 1.62 µM [183]