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Table 3 Analytical performances of urine-based biosensors

From: Advances in the development paradigm of biosample‐based biosensors for early ultrasensitive detection of alzheimer’s disease

Sensor type Target Analytical method Detection
range
Limit of detection Refs.
Femto-
sensors
Fused silica column capillary with total length 42 cm and effective length 30 cm binding with anti-8-OHdG 8-OHdG Capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) detection - 0.18 fM [176]
Nano-
sensors
Solid phase extraction (SPE) in C18/OH column and HPLC in 5µmC18 HPLC with 1 mL/min mobile phase flow rate 8-OHdG High performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) 7.0–700 nM/L 0.35 nM/L [42]
Antibody modified sandwich immunoassay AD7c-NTP ELISA - 0.48 ng/mL [17]
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane with monoclonal antibody Western blots - 0.04 ng/mL [177]
96-well microtiter plate coated with monoclonal antibody (N3I4) AD7c-NTP HPLC - 2.5 ng/mL [178]
Micro-
sensors
Microtiter plate coated with bispecific receptor antibody having affinity for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and urinary NTP AD7c-NTP Enzyme-linked sandwich immunoassay (ELISA) - 26.8 ± 9.4 µg/mL [179]
32-well microtiter plates immunoassay NTP ELISA 10–60 µg/mL 10 µg/mL [180]
Rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) coated immunosensor AD7c-NTP ELISA - 32.76 ± 9.0 µg/mL [181]
Electro-polymerized Poly(neutral red) film modified with Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) embedded with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) using glutaraldehyde (GA) cross-linker Acetylcholine (Ach) CV and EIS - 1.04 µM [182]
Rare-earth-doped (lanthanide-doped) upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) Dopamine (DA) Rayleigh light scattering 0–300 µM 1.62 µM [183]