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Table 2 Different types and main characteristics of controlled drug delivery systems for biomedical applications [141, 142]

From: Nanomedicine-based technologies and novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: from current to future challenges

Controlled drug delivery system Material Size Structure Types Fabrication methods Morphology
Liposomes Cholesterol
20 nm–10 µm Lipid based spherical shaped vesicular systems Multilamellar
Single compartment
Solvent evaporation
Solvent dispersion
Reverse phase evaporation
Micelles Phosphatidyl ethanolamine, Phosphatidyl choline, PEG, PVP, PEOz, PEO, PCL, PLA… 10–200 nm Hydrophilic inner core–Hydrophobic shell architecture Polymeric micelles
Lipid micelles
Solvent evaporation
Direct dilution
Salting out
Flash nanoprecipitation
Nanoparticles PLGA, PEG, PCL, Chitosan, Cholesterol, Palmitate, Au, Si, Ag, Fe, Cu, Pb… 10–300 nm Nanocapsules, nanospheres, porus speheres Polymeric
Solvent evaporation
Double emulsion
Salting out
NaBH4 reduction
Sol–Gel synthesis
Dendrimers PAMAM, PPI 20–400 nm Macromolecules with a regularly branched tree-like structure Simple, Chiral, Micellar, Hybrid, Metallo dendrimers Divergent synthesis
Convergent synthesis
Self-assembly synthesis
Carbon nanotubes Carbon atoms 0.5–50 nm Ø Rolled sheets of graphene rings built from sp2 hybridized carbon atoms SWCNTs, MWCNTs Laser vaporization
Chemical vapor deposition
Arc discharge
Hydrogels Fibrin, collagen, hyaluronic acid, PEG, PVA, PAAM… Natural/ synthetic cross-linked polymers containing a large amount of water Temperature-responsive hydrogels,
pH-responsive hydrogels,
Electric-sensitive hydrogels,
Ionic strength-sensitive hydrogels
Three-dimensional printing
Layer-by-Layer fabrication
Microfluidic-based fabrication
Quantum dots CdSe, CdS, ZnS, PbS… 5–50 nm Nanosized semiconductor particles with optical and electronic properties Imaging QDs, Drug delivery QDs, Sensor applications QDs Colloidal synthesis
Plasma synthesis
Self-assembled synthesis
High temperature dual injection
Polyelectrolyte complexes Chitosan, PGA, SDS, CMCG, fibroin, SCMC… 20–300 nm Polymeric matrix with oppositely charged polyelectrolytes with strong but reversible
electrostatic links
Nonstoichiometric water-soluble PECs,
Stoichiometric insoluble PECs,
Turbid colloidal stable PECs,
Complex coacervates PECs
Solution spontaneous association
Simple PECs titration technique
  1. CMCG, carboxymethyl cashew gum; MWCNTs, Multiple-walled carbon nanotubes; PAAM, poly(acrylamide); PAMAM, poly (amido amine); PCL, Poly (ε-caprolactone); PEG, Poly (ethylene glycol); PEO, poly (propylene oxide); PEOz, poly (2-ethyl-2-oxazoline); PGA, polygalacturonic acid; PLA, poly (lactide); PLGA, poly (lactic-co-glycolic); PPI, poly(propylenemine); PVP, poly (N-vinyl pyrrolidone); SCMC, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose; SDS, sodium dextran sulfate; SWCNTs, Single-walled carbon nanotubes