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Table 1 Physico-chemical characteristics of TiO2, ZnO, Ag, BaSO4 and CeO2 ENMs

From: Understanding the impact of more realistic low-dose, prolonged engineered nanomaterial exposure on genotoxicity using 3D models of the human liver

ENM physico-chemical characterisation TiO2
NM-105
ZnO
NM-111
Ag
Sigma 576832
BaSO4
NM-220
CeO2
NM-212
Core composition and CAS Titanium Dioxide
CAS: 1317-80-2
Zinc Oxide
CAS: 1314-13-2
Silver
CAS: 7440-22-4
Barium Sulfate CAS: 7727-43-7 Cerium Dioxide CAS: 1306-38-3
Crystalline phases (XRD)a 86.9% Anatase + 13.1% Rutile Zincite Metallic Barite Cerianite
Surface coating N/A UV active silicon coating—triethoxycaprylsilane PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) functionalized polymer N/A N/A
Impurities (XRF) None (purity > 99%) P2O5, SiO2, CaO, CuO, Fe2O3, NiO (All < 1.0%) Pd, Cl (< 1.0%)
Rh, Fe, Cu, Ni (< 0.1%)
(purity > 99.5%)
Na, Ca, Sr, F, Cl, organic contaminations
(purity > 93.8%)
P2O5, CaO, Cl (< 1.0%)
V2O5, SO3, CoO, MgO, SiO2, CuO, Fe2O3, ZnO (< 0.1%)
Size (MinFeret; TEM)b 25 nm 40.6 nm 30.0 nm 31.5 nm 13.7 nm
3D aspect ratio and circulatory (TEM)b N/A A.R: 1.88 ± 0.78
C: 0.80 ± 0.12
A.R: 1.36 ± 0.30
C: 0.88 ± 0.09
A.R: 1.22 ± 0.19
C: 0.98 ± 0.04
A.R: 1.21 ± 0.25
C: 0.97 ± 0.06
Surface area (BET) 51.0 m2/g 12.0 m2/g 6.4 m2/g 33.0 m2/g 27.0 m2/g
Relative density (He pycnometer) 3.95 g/cm3 4.99 g/cm3 8.36 g/cm3 4.13 g/cm3 7.2 g/cm3
Chemical nature of the surface (XPS)c Ti: 24.5%
O: 65.0%
C: 10.5%
Zn: 34.6%
C: 22.2%
O: 43.1%
Ag: 38.9%
C: 47.6%
O: 13.5%
Ba: 21.5%
S: 12.5%
O: 65.8%
Ce: 25.6%
O: 74.4%
Surface charge (zeta potential at pH 7 in 10 mM KCl water solution) − 17.0 mv N/A − 30.0 mV − 30.2 mV + 35.2 mV
Surface reactivity (FRAS) 18.6 (nmol TEU/m2 ENM) 20.3 (nmol TEU/m2 ENM) 2240.0 (nmol TEU/m2 ENM) 13.9 (nmol TEU/m2 ENM) 16.7 (nmol TEU/m2 ENM)
Surface reactivity (EPR DMPO and CPH spin count) DMPO: 3.01e+12
CPH: 8.29e+12
DMPO: 1.21e+13
CPH: 1.28e+13
DMPO: 8.00e+11
CPH: 5.58e+13
DMPO: 4.92e+12
CPH: 8.89e+12
DMPO: 5.86e+12
CPH: 1.22e+14
Hydrophobicity (water contact angle) Hydrophilic (60°) Hydrophobic (152°) Hydrophobic (141°) Hydrophilic (< 10°) Hydrophilic (60°)
Dissolutiond Low dissolution (in PBS) High dissolution (in biological media DMEM + FCS) Unknown Low dissolution (in PBS) Low dissolution (in biological media DMEM + FCS)
Dissolution (24 h) in DMEM + 10% FBS + 1% Pen/Strep Not detectable 10.11 ± 0.31 µg/mL 0.01 ± 0.01 µg/mL 2.40 ± 0.01 µg/mL Not detectable
Biological clearance in vivo (t50)d Physiological clearance (> 40 days) Rapid clearance Unknown Accelerated clearance (< 40 days) Decelerated clearance (> 40 days)
Previous REACH grouping categoryd 4—active, biopersistent, non-fibrous ENMs 1—soluble, non-persistent ENMs 1—soluble, non-persistent ENMs 3—passive, biopersistent, non-fibrous ENM 4—active, biopersistent, non-fibrous ENMs
  1. Characterisation techniques are abbreviated, in order of appearance, as follows: CAS chemical abstracts service, XRD X-ray diffraction, XRF X-ray fluorescence, TEM transmission electron microscopy, BET Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, XPS X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, FRAS ferric reduction ability of serum, EPR electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, DMPO 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide, CPH 1-hydroxy-3-carboxy-pyrrolidine, REACH registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals
  2. All data indicated with a ais complemented by TEM images, sourced from Keller et al. and Yin et al. bis complemented by XRD graphs cis complemented by XPS graphs located in the Additional file 1: Figure S1, S2 and S3, respectively. All data with a dwas sourced from Arts et al. 2016 [32, 34, 35]