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Table 2 Biosensors for the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein

From: A magneto-optical biochip for rapid assay based on the Cotton–Mouton effect of γ-Fe2O3@Au core/shell nanoparticles

Biosensor Analyte (SARS-CoV-2) LOD Refs.
Graphene sheet field-effect transistor based biosensor Spike glycoprotein 1 fg/mL [34]
Electrochemical immunoassay Spike glycoprotein 20 µg/mL [35]
Bioelectric recognition assay based on membrane-engineered mammalian cells biosensor Spike glycoprotein 1 fg/mL [36]
Functionalized terahertz plasmonic metasensors Spike glycoprotein 4.2 fM [37]
5G-enabled fluorescence sensor Spike glycoprotein 1.6 ng/mL [38]
Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based COVID-19 biosensor Spike glycoprotein 0.77 fg/mL [39]
Au-NPs@rPGO modified ITO electrode-based Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy Spike glycoprotein 39.5 fmol/L [40]
AC magnetic response of Functionalized MNPs Spike glycoprotein 0.084 nM [41]
Opto-microfluidic sensing platform with gold nanospikes Spike glycoprotein 0.08 ng/mL [42]
A lateral flow point of care diagnostic device Spike glycoprotein 5 µg/mL [43]
A biochip based on the Cotton–Mouton effect of γ-Fe2O3@Au core/shell nanoparticles Spike glycoprotein 0.27 ng/mL (3.4 pM) This work