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Table 1 USFDA-approval commercial IONPs

From: Quercetin attenuates neurotoxicity induced by iron oxide nanoparticles

Generic name of SPION Ferumoxide Ferumoxsil Ferumoxytol
Trade name Feridex I.V
(USA) Rienso
Approval date USFDA approval in 1996
Discontinued in 2008
USFDA approval in 1996
Discontinued in 2012
USFDA approval in 2009
Coating Dextran Siloxane Carboxymethyl-dextran
Size 120–180 nm 300 nm 20–50 nm
Blood half-life 10 min NA 14 h
Recommended dose 30 μmol Fe kg−1 600 mL (105 mg Fe) An initial 510 mg dose followed by a second 510 mg dose 3 to 8 days later
Administration route Intravenously Oral suspension Intravenously
Application/indication Visualization of liver tumors and metastasis Contrast enhancement agent for MRI of gastrointestinal and examination of the bowel Iron replacement therapy for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in adult patients with chronic kidney disease
Human side Effects Nausea, leg pain, headache, chest pain, hives, vasodilation Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and cramps, iron overload, hiatal hernia Hypotension, infusion site reactions, gastrointestinal complications, dizziness
Animals toxicology Despite evidence of long-term toxicity, no iron overload, oxidative stress, pathological brain cell, and myelin changes were detected [298] There are no carcinogens, genotoxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity in vivo studies. No neurotoxic side effects have been reported (see Foot note link 14) Repeat-dose toxicity, reduction in body weight gain and food consumption, enhancement in pigmentation intensity, decrease in fetal weights and external and soft tissue fetal malformations
in vivo studies. No neurotoxic side effects have been reported (see Foot note link 15)