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Table 1 Summary of parameters for USCM BBB opening

From: Ultrasound-assisted brain delivery of nanomedicines for brain tumor therapy: advance and prospect

Carrier system Types of ultrasound Parameters of ultrasound Mechanism Duration (min) Refs
Frequency (MHz) Sound pressure (MPa) Pulse length (ms) PRF (Hz)
BCNU bubbles pFUS 10 0.5–4.5 10 Cavitation effect 4 [42]
DOX-SPIO-MBs pFUS 0.4 0.325 1 Cavitation effect 1.5 [43]
PFP nanodroplets pFUS 1.5 0.45; 0.60 6.7 5 Cavitation effect 5 [44]
PEG-PLGA-PFP nanodroplets cFUS 1 1.0 Thermal effect;
cavitation effect
3 [45]
Nanobubbles pFUS 0.75 ± 0.05  < 0.5 10 1 Cavitation effect 0.5 [46]
LIFUP 1 0.3 1 Cavitation effect 2 [47]
Propofol-loaded nanoemulsions pFUS 1 0.5 10 0.5 Cavitation effect 2 [48]
pFUS 0.69 0.6–0.8 10 1 Cavitation effect 1 [49]
AP-1 Lipo-Dox HIFUS 1 0.7 1 Cavitation effect [50]
CDDP-BPN nanoparticles cFUS 1.14 0.8 Cavitation effect [51]
The liposomal (LP)-O.6BTG-C18 nanoparticles LIFUP 0.28–0.55 10 1 Cavitation effect 3 [52]
BCNU-MBs pFUS 1 0.5 5 5 Cavitation effect 2 [53]
GDNFp-liposome pFUS 0.5 0.33 10 1 Cavitation effect 0.5 [54]
MBs pFUS 0.612 0.55–0.81 10 1 Cavitation effect 1 [55]
Albumin-based nanoclusters pFUS 1.1 0.30 10 1 Cavitation effect 2 [56]
  1. Abbreviations: pFUS, pulsed focused ultrasound; PRF, pulse repetition frequency; LIFUP/HIFUP, low-intensity/ high-intensity focused ultrasound pulses; cFUS, continuous focused ultrasound