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Table 1 Summary of parameters for USCM BBB opening

From: Ultrasound-assisted brain delivery of nanomedicines for brain tumor therapy: advance and prospect

Carrier system

Types of ultrasound

Parameters of ultrasound

Mechanism

Duration (min)

Refs

Frequency (MHz)

Sound pressure (MPa)

Pulse length (ms)

PRF (Hz)

BCNU bubbles

pFUS

10

0.5–4.5

10

Cavitation effect

4

[42]

DOX-SPIO-MBs

pFUS

0.4

0.325

1

Cavitation effect

1.5

[43]

PFP nanodroplets

pFUS

1.5

0.45; 0.60

6.7

5

Cavitation effect

5

[44]

PEG-PLGA-PFP nanodroplets

cFUS

1

1.0

Thermal effect;

cavitation effect

3

[45]

Nanobubbles

pFUS

0.75 ± 0.05

 < 0.5

10

1

Cavitation effect

0.5

[46]

LIFUP

1

0.3

1

Cavitation effect

2

[47]

Propofol-loaded nanoemulsions

pFUS

1

0.5

10

0.5

Cavitation effect

2

[48]

pFUS

0.69

0.6–0.8

10

1

Cavitation effect

1

[49]

AP-1 Lipo-Dox

HIFUS

1

0.7

1

Cavitation effect

[50]

CDDP-BPN nanoparticles

cFUS

1.14

0.8

Cavitation effect

[51]

The liposomal (LP)-O.6BTG-C18 nanoparticles

LIFUP

0.28–0.55

10

1

Cavitation effect

3

[52]

BCNU-MBs

pFUS

1

0.5

5

5

Cavitation effect

2

[53]

GDNFp-liposome

pFUS

0.5

0.33

10

1

Cavitation effect

0.5

[54]

MBs

pFUS

0.612

0.55–0.81

10

1

Cavitation effect

1

[55]

Albumin-based nanoclusters

pFUS

1.1

0.30

10

1

Cavitation effect

2

[56]

  1. Abbreviations: pFUS, pulsed focused ultrasound; PRF, pulse repetition frequency; LIFUP/HIFUP, low-intensity/ high-intensity focused ultrasound pulses; cFUS, continuous focused ultrasound