The therapeutic effect of Pd@insulin on TBI occurs via neuroinflammation inhibition. A Venn diagram of the transcriptomic profiles between TBI-Sham and Pd-TBI. B GO enrichment analysis and C KEGG pathway classification of 37 genes, screened out from the overlapped genes between TBI-Sham and TBI + Pd@insulin-TBI. D Protein-to-protein network of 37 genes involved in Pd@insulin treatment. E qRT-PCR analysis of mRNA expression of the genes (n = 3). F Representative immunofluorescent staining images of injured cortex in TBI mice post Cy5-label Pd@insulin injection (Scale bar 100 nm) and G quantitation analysis for the comparison of Pd@insulin intake in different brain cells (n = 3). qRT-PCR analysis of mRNA expression in BV2 treated by Rosup or Pd@insulin + Rosup (n = 3) for H M1/M2 related genes and K the genes from transcriptomics analysis or L related to neuroinflammation. The production of (I TNFα and IL6 in the supernatant of microglia determined by ELISA (n = 3). J Western blot of Rosup/Rosup + Pd@insulin treated microglia. Data are all shown as mean ± SD. Statistical analysis of (E, G, H, I, K, and L) was performed by one-way ANOVA with a Tukey post.