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Table 2 Examples of materials to functionalize the surface of NPs proposed for drug delivery in PD

From: Repositioning of drugs for Parkinson’s disease and pharmaceutical nanotechnology tools for their optimization

Composition of NPs Functional material Function Mechanism References
7pep-M-C6 Transferrin Crossing of gastrointestinal barrier Enter the cells through a specific clathrin-mediated mechanism [114]
DA-Tf-LP Transferrin Crossing of BBB BBB crossing by Tf receptor-mediated endogenous transcytosis [117]
B-Lf-PEG-PLGA Lactoferrin Effective biological ligand to the striatum The Lf receptor is overexpressed in epithelial cells, capillaries, and neurons in PD. Cellular uptake occurs via receptor-mediated transcytosis to Lf [115]
DA-PEG-LP Polyethylene glycol Evasion of the immune system PEG coating is believed to increase its biological half-life due to reduced interactions with plasma proteins or cell surface receptors [118]
Selegiline-CS Chitosan Crossing of BBB and mucosal barriers The mucoadhesive nature of QS improves mucosal retention time, improves permeability through the BBB through endocytosis by electrostatic adhesion, and through an opening of tight junctions [119]
pDNA-NGF-GNP Nerve growth factor Improves neural uptake Enhances neuronal uptake through NGF receptor-mediated endocytosis [120]
hGDNF-Angiopep-DGL-PEG Angiopep Crossing of BBB Angiopep is a ligand that specifically binds to low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP that is overexpressed on the BBB and crosses by transcytosis [121]
RHCl-Polysorbate 80-CS Polysorbate 80 Crossing of BBB Coating with polysorbate 80 helps in the adsorption of plasma proteins from blood and thus, facilitates the entry of nanoparticles to BBB by the receptor-mediated endocytosis [122]
  1. B Borneol, CS Chitosan, C6 Coumarin 6, DA Dopamine, DGL Dendrigraft poly-L-lysine, GNP Gold nanoparticles, hGDNF Human glial-derived neurotrophic factor, Lf Lactoferrin, LP Liposomes, NGF Nerve growth factor, NPs Nanoparticles, M PEG-b-PCL copolymer, pDNA Plasmid DNA, PEG Polyethylene glycol, PLGA Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid, RHCl Ropinirole hydrochloride, Tf Transferrin, 7pep Transferrin receptor specific 7peptide