Interaction of silver nanoparticles with algae and fish cells: a side by side comparison
© The Author(s) 2017
Received: 2 September 2016
Accepted: 22 February 2017
Published: 28 February 2017
Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are widely applied and can, upon use, be released into the aquatic environment. This raises concerns about potential impacts of AgNP on aquatic organisms. We here present a side by side comparison of the interaction of AgNP with two contrasting cell types: algal cells, using the algae Euglena gracilis as model, and fish cells, a cell line originating from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill (RTgill-W1). The comparison is based on the AgNP behavior in exposure media, toxicity, uptake and interaction with proteins.
(1) The composition of exposure media affected AgNP behavior and toxicity to algae and fish cells. (2) The toxicity of AgNP to algae was mediated by dissolved silver while nanoparticle specific effects in addition to dissolved silver contributed to the toxicity of AgNP to fish cells. (3) AgNP did not enter into algal cells; they only adsorbed onto the cell surface. In contrast, AgNP were taken up by fish cells via endocytic pathways. (4) AgNP can bind to both extracellular and intracellular proteins and inhibit enzyme activity.
Our results showed that fish cells take up AgNP in contrast to algal cells, where AgNP sorbed onto the cell surface, which indicates that the cell wall of algae is a barrier to particle uptake. This particle behaviour results in different responses to AgNP exposure in algae and fish cells. Yet, proteins from both cell types can be affected by AgNP exposure: for algae, extracellular proteins secreted from cells for, e.g., nutrient acquisition. For fish cells, intracellular and/or membrane-bound proteins, such as the Na+/K+-ATPase, are susceptible to AgNP binding and functional impairment.
Owing to their unique antimicrobial properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are among the most widely used engineered nanoparticles in a variety of consumer products and medical applications, such as textiles and paints. With washing, rain and through other routes, these nanoparticles can be released into the environment, especially into the aquatic environment . This raises concern about potential adverse effects in aquatic organisms. On this background, the toxicity of AgNP to aquatic organisms has been tested on a variety of organisms, ranging from bacteria, to plants, fungi, algae, invertebrates and fish [2–4]. However, with few exceptions [5, 6], most studies did not clearly attribute toxicity to either direct effects of AgNP or to indirect effects of dissolved silver, which includes all the silver species in oxidized state Ag(I) in aqueous solution, such as Ag+, AgCln (aq) and AgOH (aq), stemming from AgNP.
Among aquatic organisms, algae and fish are two important models. As autotrophic organisms, algae are primary producers, i.e. they fix CO2 to produce oxygen in the presence of light. They are at the base of the food chain, serving as food to, e.g. water flea but also fish. Microalgae are single cell organisms surrounded by an inner plasma membrane and an outer semi-permeable cell wall of various compositions. The pores in such cell walls have a size estimated to be 5–20 nm. It helps the algae to maintain integrity and constitutes a primary site for interaction with the surrounding environment . Algae connect with their environment by releasing, e.g. digestive enzymes, for nutrient acquisition. Whether algae have sophisticated mechanisms of particle uptake, such as via endocytosis (see below), is still a matter of debate. Accordingly, internalization of nanoparticles in algae was suggested in only a few studies [8, 9]. There was no evidence of nanoparticle uptake into algae in many other studies using electron microscope imaging and/or analysis of internalized metal in cells [10–14]. These findings emphasize the role of the algal surface as a potential barrier against nanoparticle entry into the cells, with the limitation likely being the pore size in the cell wall.
In contrast to microalgae, fish are heterotrophic, multiple organ- and tissue-based organisms. Fish are at a higher trophic level than algae but depend on the oxygen that algae and other autotrophic organisms produce. Depending on the species, fish can be consumers of algae or of other heterotrophs. With respect to environmental exposure to chemicals or nanoparticles, the fish gill is an important interface due to its large surface. The gill affords gas exchange between the external water environment and internal environment of the organism. In this exchange process, other substances, like metal nanoparticles and organic compounds, can interact with fish gill cells and eventually pass into the blood stream. Therefore, the fish gill can be considered a target of fish-nanoparticle interactions. Accordingly, AgNP were found to be most highly concentrated within gill and liver tissue of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after a 10-day exposure . In contrast to algae cells, fish gill cells, like all animal cells, are cell wall-free. Several kinds of endocytic pathways were proposed for nanoparticle incorporation into animal cells: clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae-mediated endocytosis, macropinocytosis and phagocytosis [14, 16]. Once the vesicles carrying nanoparticles are internalized and detach from the plasma membrane, the vesicles are sorted and transported to different endocytic compartments. By these processes, nanoparticles are delivered to other subcellular compartments in endocytic pathways, from early endosome and multi-vesicular bodies to late endosomes and lysosomes .
Independent of the mechanism of particle uptake, nanoparticles tend to bind molecules from the surrounding environment owing to their big surface-to-mass ratio. During nanoparticle interaction with cells, proteins are an important class of biomolecules that are prone to binding to nanoparticles, leading to a protein corona [18, 19]. With regard to extracellular proteins, such as the digestive proteins excreted by algae and bacteria, a so-called “eco-corona” can form [20, 21]. Intracellular proteins, on the other hand, can bind to particles upon uptake into cells. With the binding to nanoparticles, the properties and functions of proteins can change compared to unbound proteins. Thus, it is also important to understand to what extent nanoparticle-protein complexes impact on the properties of the proteins. Studies on the nanoparticle-protein interactions initially focused on single proteins. For example, Wigginton  found that AgNP inhibited tryptophanase (TNase) activity in the interaction with E. coli proteins and a dose-dependent inhibition of enzyme activity was observed for the incubation of citrate-coated AgNP with firefly luciferase . In contrast to single protein-nanoparticle interactions, only few studies have thus far focused on identifying proteins that bind out of a complex mixture, especially in an intact intracellular environment [24, 25]. Such studies not only help identify the proteins most susceptible to particle binding but can also guide future research on single protein-particle interactions.
In order to shed light on the detailed mechanisms of interaction between AgNP and cells of algae and fish, we explored different aspects of AgNP-cell interactions, spanning AgNP behavior in exposure media, toxicity to cells, uptake and interaction with proteins. We aimed to critically compare the interaction of AgNP with contrasting cell types belonging to autotrophic vs. heterotrophic organisms in order to support a rational assessment of risks based on our previous studies [26–29]. A species of algae, Euglena gracilis, and a fish gill cell line, RTgill-W1 , originating from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were selected to represent an autotrophic and a heterotrophic aquatic cellular system. The Euglena gracilis has no rigid cell wall but a flexible glycoprotein-containing pellicle, which aligns on the surface in longitudinal articulated stripes . It was selected on purpose because nanoparticle uptake was thought to more likely occur in such an algae compared to one with a rigid cell wall. The RTgill-W1 cell line can survive in a simplified exposure medium, which provides the possibility to expose cells in medium that more closely mimics the aqueous environment a fish gill would face [32, 33]. Both algae and fish gill cell exposures were performed in minimal media supporting cell survival but not proliferation, in order to provide better controllable exposure and effect assessment for mechanistic studies. Here we focus on the comparative aspects of the outcome of our research. Unless noted otherwise, we will refer to E. gracilis as “algal cells” and to the RTgill-W1 fish gill cell line as “fish cells”.
Results and discussion
The composition of exposure media significantly influences AgNP behavior
AgNP behavior in exposure media for algae and fish cells
The dissolution of AgNP, expressed as percentage of free to total silver, was comparable in MOPS and L-15/ex (~1.8%); dissolution was somewhat lower in L-15/ex w/o Cl and d-L-15/ex medium (~0.5%). Depending on the applied concentrations, this amounts to dissolved silver in the range of 1 nM to 2 µM (assuming 1–2% dissolution in 0.1–100 µM AgNP suspension). Upon contact with algae or fish cells, the uptake of dissolved silver shifts the AgNP/silver ion equilibrium and more silver ions are released. Furthermore, previous work reported that AgNP accumulated in mammalian cell endosomes and lysosomes displayed higher dissolution in these acidic environments than in a neutral environment [17, 36]. Therefore, we expect significant dissolution of AgNP in this process and used AgNO3 as a dissolved silver control throughout.
The diverse behavior of AgNP in the different exposure media demonstrates the importance of accounting for nanoparticle characteristics in the respective exposure environments. The composition of the exposure media showed a strong influence, especially in terms of particle agglomeration but also in terms of dissolution. In high ionic strength medium, high concentrations of ions can break the electrical double layers surrounding the AgNP and thereby decrease the surface charge, which leads to AgNP agglomeration. In the presence of chloride, AgNP were more stable (compare L-15/ex medium to L-15/ex w/o Cl), which means chloride ions can stabilize AgNP, likely by binding to AgNP surfaces and contributing to a negative surface charge. In terms of AgNP dissolution, a higher percentage was found in L-15/ex with high chloride: chloride shifts the equilibrium of AgNP dissolution by complexing the dissolved silver.
AgNP adsorb to the algal cell surface but can be taken up by fish cells
To quantitatively relate AgNP/AgNO3 exposure to the toxicity seen in algal and fish cells, cell-associated silver was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Upon exposure to similar concentrations of AgNP or AgNO3, the cell-associated silver in algae cells was comparable with the cell-associated silver which was reported for the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii . Similarly, the cell-associated silver in RTgill-W1 cells was also comparable with the silver content in other vertebrate cell types, such as mouse erythroleukemia cells  and HepG2 cells .
In the case of AgNP exposure, the algal cells again had 2.5–4 times more cell-associated silver than the fish cells at 2.5–5 μM of external AgNP concentration (Fig. 1). We attribute this difference to a higher overall exposure of the algal cells. There might be various factors influencing the level of cell-associated silver, e.g. kinetics of internalization into fish cells, sorption differences, ongoing dissolution at the interface between AgNP and cell surface, and abundance of metal transporters. Indeed, algae cells were exposed in suspension, allowing AgNP and AgNO3 to interact from all sides with the cell surface (643 µm2/cell). In contrast, the fish cells were exposed as a cell monolayer sitting on a cell culture surface, which means only one side of the fish cells (half of the cell surface: 286 µm2/cell) was in immediate contact with AgNP or AgNO3.
AgNP and silver ions elicit toxicity to algae and fish cells
When comparing these EC50s, both similarities and differences were found for algal and fish cells. In terms of similarities, AgNP induced significantly lower toxicity than AgNO3 in both cell types if EC50s are expressed as a function of total silver present (Fig. 2). In terms of differences, algae were 10 to 100 times more sensitive than fish cells to both AgNP and AgNO3 exposure. On the other hand, if EC50s are expressed as a function of dissolved silver in the respective exposure media, it was found that the toxicity of AgNP to algae is mediated solely by dissolved silver  while in fish cells, AgNP were found to induce toxicity by a nanoparticle specific effect as well as dissolved silver .
The media composition also had a strong effect on the toxicity of AgNP to fish cells (Fig. 2) . Among the three fish cell exposure media, AgNP yielded highest toxicity in L-15/ex w/o Cl and lowest toxicity in d-L-15/ex. This difference correlates with the degree of AgNP agglomeration in the media: the strongly agglomerated AgNP (size: 1000–1750 nm) in L-15/ex w/o Cl induced a 2-times higher toxicity than moderately agglomerated AgNP (size: 200–500 nm) in L-15/ex and 5-times higher toxicity than weakly agglomerated AgNP (size: 40–100 nm) in d-L-15/ex medium. Likely, the different degrees of agglomeration resulted in differing degrees of deposition of AgNP onto the fish cells, with the strongest agglomeration leading to highest cell exposure. This trend indicated that agglomeration and deposition could increase the interaction of AgNP with RTgill-W1 cell and induce higher toxicity. In the present exposure model, fish cells formed a cell layer on the bottom of the wells and AgNP suspensions were added on top. Previous modeling work showed that large size nanoparticles are transported faster than small nanoparticles due to deposition [49, 50]. Because of particle deposition on the cell monolayer, AgNP agglomeration may increase the interaction of AgNP with cells and thereby AgNP toxicity. Among the fish cell exposure media, d-L-15/ex medium maintains AgNP stability and better reflects the freshwater environment to which gill cells of freshwater fish would be exposed. Therefore, d-L-15/ex was selected to study the interaction of AgNP with fish cells in more detail.
The fact that no particle-specific effect was seen in algae suggested that AgNP were not incorporated into algae but that they may adhere to the algal surface from which Ag+ may dissolve and as such be taken up in the cells. To follow up on this hypothesis, the localization of cell-associated silver in algae was investigated by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF–SIMS), a qualitative and quantitative surface analysis. Indeed, the silver intensity from algae exposed to AgNP and AgNO3 indicated a strong sorption of AgNP onto the algal surface . In contrast, fish gill cells take up AgNP in an energy—dependent process: as demonstrated by TEM coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis that localized the NPs in the endocytic compartments of the cells . This latter finding corresponds to the work of others who confirmed metal nanoparticles uptake by vertebrate cells via endocytic pathways [51–53].
AgNP can bind cellular proteins and inhibit enzyme activity
Considering the contrasting finding that algal cells do not take up AgNP while fish cells do, and the importance of the AgNP-protein binding in nano-bio interaction, we postulate that extracellular proteins are more important in terms of AgNP exposure for algae while intracellular proteins should be considered for fish cells. One important extracellular protein is alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme responsible for phosphorus acquisition. This enzyme is highly abundant in aquatic environments, and is produced by a wide range of organisms including bacteria, fungi, zooplankton and algae [54–56]. Previously, alkaline phosphatase activity in periphyton was shown to be unaffected  or stimulated  by AgNP. However, considering that algae within periphyton are embedded in a matrix of biomolecules forming a biofilm , other factors might influence direct interaction of AgNP with the enzyme, e.g. periphyton community continuously synthesizes and secrets enzymes, it could not be determined whether the absence of inhibitory effects was due to a lack of interaction with AgNP or whether any impact was masked by de-novo synthesis of the enzyme.
Indeed, studying the interaction of AgNP or AgNO3 with isolated alkaline phosphatase showed that AgNP have a particle—specific, inhibitory effect on alkaline phosphatase activity and that this inhibition depends on the sequences of addition of enzyme substrate or AgNP . Other studies have reported on an inhibitory effect on extracellular enzymes by nanoparticles. For example, in the same study on periphyton cited above , inhibition of β-glucosidase and l-leucine aminopeptidase was attributed to dissolved silver and particle specific effects. Inhibitory effects of the same proteins were also seen in heterotrophic biofilm exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles . Thus, understanding the mechanisms of interaction of extracellular proteins and nanoparticles in general is an important future direction.
In order to study the interaction of AgNP with intracellular proteins in fish cells, the AgNP-protein corona was recovered from intact endocytic compartments by a newly established method with subcellular fractionation. Proteins acquired from the AgNP-protein corona were identified by mass spectrometry and analyzed with Gene Ontology. A total of 383 proteins were identified in this way and broadly classified as belonging to cell membrane functions, uptake and vesicle-mediated transport and stress-response pathways . These proteins regulate substance transport across the plasma membrane or play key roles in cell metabolic processes, such as Na+/K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, adaptor-related protein complex 1 (AP-1B1), caveolin 1, flotillin 1/2, EH-domain containing protein 1/2/4 and Rab Family Small GTPases (RAB5A, RAB7A, RAB18) . Based on the identified proteins, the processing of AgNP in fish cells was reconstructed: AgNP were taken up by fish cells via endocytic processes and stored in endosomal/lysosomal compartments . Binding to AgNP could impair the function of these proteins and subsequently disrupt the normal cell activity, which would relate to the decline of cell viability in RTgill-W1 cells exposed to AgNP. Some of these proteins were also identified in the corona of magnetic nanoparticles exposed to human lung epithelial cells (A549) and HeLa cells [24, 25]. This indicated that vertebrate cells take up metal nanoparticles via common pathways regardless of elemental composition or coating of particles, exposure conditions and cell types.
Summary of the interaction of AgNP with algae and fish cells
Slight agglomeration in MOPS medium
Slight agglomeration in d-L-15/ex medium and strong agglomeration in L-15/ex and L-15/ex w/o Cl media
Dissolved silvera, nanoparticle-specific effect
No, adsorbed on algal surface
Yes, uptake via endocytic pathways
Adsorption of extracellular enzyme on AgNP, inhibition of enzymatic activity
Cell membrane proteins and endocytic proteins binding to NP, inhibition of enzymatic activity
Cell structure and AgNP association
AgNP preparation and characterization
The citrate coated AgNP were purchased from NanoSys GmbH (Wolfhalden, Switzerland) as aqueous suspension with a concentration of 1 g/L (9.27 mM referring to the total silver, pH 6.46). The Z-average size and Zeta potential of AgNP in the stock solution were 19.4 nm and −30 mV, respectively. The stock AgNP solution was kept in the dark. A stock solution (10 mM) of AgNO3 (Sigma-Aldrich, Switzerland) was prepared by dissolving AgNO3 in nanopure water (16–18 MΩ/cm; Barnstead Nanopure Skan AG, Switzerland). The experimental solutions of AgNP and AgNO3 were freshly prepared by adding AgNP and AgNO3 stock solution into the respective exposure media and vortexing for 10 s. Unless specifically indicated, all chemicals were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. As the work focused on the impacts of AgNP on algae and fish cells, we chose the respective AgNP and AgNO3 concentrations to observe significant effects in the toxicity experiments. In the uptake experiments, the exposure concentrations were selected to meet the ICP-MS detection limit.
The AgNP were characterized in nanopure water and under experimental conditions in each exposure media. The Z-average size and zeta potential of the AgNP were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and electrophoretic mobility using a Zetasizer (Nano ZS, Malvern Instruments, UK) [26, 27]. To measure the dissolution of AgNP in exposure medium, dissolved silver was separated by two methods: centrifugal ultrafiltration with a nominal molecular weight cut-off of 3 kDa (Amicon ultra-4 centrifugal filter units, Millipore, Germany) centrifuged at 3000×g for 0.5 h (Megafuge 1.0R, Heraeus Instruments, Germany) and by ultra-centrifugation (CENTRIKON T-2000, KONTRON Instruments, Switzerland) at 145,000×g for 3 h. The silver concentration was measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS, Element 2, Thermo Finnigan, Germany). The dissolution of AgNP was calculated by dividing the measured dissolved silver concentration to the related nominal total silver concentration. The average of the AgNP dissolution (Table 1) obtained by ultra-filtration and ultra-centrifugation was used for recalculation of the concentration–response curves as a function of dissolved silver (Fig. 3).
Algal culture and exposure of cells
The alga E. gracilis strain Z (Culture Collection of Algae, Göttingen, Germany) was cultured in the Talaquil medium (pH 7.5) supplemented with vitamins B1 and B12  at 20 °C under light–dark cycles of 12 h each on a shaker (Infors, Switzerland) with 90 rpm. The cell number and volume were measured by a particle counter (Beckman Coulter Z2, USA).
Before exposure to AgNO3 and AgNP, exponentially grown algae were centrifuged at 2000×g for 10 min and then re-suspended in MOPS. The final cell density for toxicity assessment was 1.5 × 104 cell/mL. After exposure to AgNO3 (0–400 nM) and AgNP (0–40 μM) for 1 and 2 h, to study toxic effects, the photosynthetic yield was measured by fluorometry using a PHYTO-PAM (Heinz Walz GmbH, Germany) . The values were presented as percentage of controls, and were plotted as a function of measured total silver and cell-associated silver .
RTgill-W1 cell culture and exposure of cells
RTgill-W1 cells were routinely cultivated in L-15 medium (Invitrogen, Switzerland), supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS, Gold, PAA Laboratories GmbH, Austria) and 1% penicillin/streptomycin (Sigma-Aldrich, Switzerland) in 75 cm2 flasks. The L-15 medium containing these supplements is termed “complete L-15”. Cells are routinely cultured in the dark in normal atmosphere at 19 °C.
For exposure to AgNO3 (0–5 μM) and AgNP (0–100 μM), cells were seeded in 24-well microtiter plates or 25 cm2 flasks, and cultured in complete L-15 medium. After being fully confluent, cell monolayers were washed with either L-15/ex, L-15/ex w/o Cl or d-L-15/ex. Then, 1 mL/well of AgNP or AgNO3 suspension in the respective media was added to culture wells. Exposure proceeded for 2–24 h at 19 °C. AlamarBlue (AB, Invitrogen, Switzerland) was used to measure the cellular metabolic activity to assess the toxicity of AgNP to fish gill cells [27, 32]. Before incubation with AlamarBlue, the AgNP suspension was removed and exposed cells were carefully washed with PBS to removed loosely adsorbed AgNP. Control experiments showed no interference of the silver with the AlamarBlue assay.
Uptake of AgNP by algae and fish cells
The algae were exposed to AgNP (0–10 μM) and AgNO3 (0–500 nM) at a cell density of 1 × 105 cell/mL in order to meet the detection limit of the ICP-MS. After 1 h of exposure, the algae were washed to remove loosely bound AgNP with fresh medium or adsorbed silver ions by cysteine using the following protocol: algae exposed to AgNP or AgNO3 were first centrifuged (2000×g, 10 min) and resuspended in MOPS. After 2 wash cycles, the algae were re-suspended in cysteine–MOPS and gently stirred for 5 min. After washing, the algae were filtered (SM 16510, Sartorius) and digested for metal analysis .
To quantify the fish cell-associated silver, RTgill-W1 cells were cultured in 25 cm2 flasks until confluency and then exposed to AgNP (2.5–10 μM) or AgNO3 (0.5–5 μM) in d-L-15/ex medium. After exposure, the medium with AgNP or AgNO3 was removed and cells were washed twice with cysteine for 5 min. Cells were then trypsinized. Detached cells were re-suspended in complete L-15 medium. Cell suspensions were centrifuged at 1000×g for 3 min to pellet the cells. Cell pellets were re-suspended in 550 µL PBS and the cell density determined by an electronic cell counter (CASY1 TCC, Schärfe System, Germany). A volume of 500 µL cell supernatant was digested for metal analysis .
Samples from algae and fish cell exposures were digested with 4.5 mL of 65% HNO3 in a high-performance microwave digestion unit (MLS-1200 MEGA, Switzerland) at a maximum temperature of 195 °C for 20 min. The digests were diluted 50-times and measured by ICP-MS. The detection limit for ICP-MS quantitation of silver was 10 ng/L (1.0 × 10−5 mol/Lcell in the current work). The reliability of the measurements was determined using specific water references (M105A, IFA-Tull, Austria). As the volume of algal cells is larger than that of the fish cells, the measured cell associated silver was related to cell volume and expressed as mol/Lcell in order to be able to directly compare the cell-associated silver in algae and fish cells. The associated silver was also related to the cell number and expressed as mol per cell to be able to compare with other reports.
The localization of cell-associated silver in algae was checked by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis (TOF–SIMS, ToF.SIMS 5 instrument, ION-TOF GmbH). The primary ion was 25 keV Bi+ to ensure high sensitivity to silver and the sputtering time was 5.2 s leading to ablation of a few nanometers of the surface layer of the cell . The AgNP uptake in fish cells was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, FEI Morgagni 268, 100 kV) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy analyses in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM, Hitachi HD-2700) .
Interaction of AgNP with proteins
Alkaline phosphatase (Sigma-Aldrich) was select as a representative extracellular algal enzyme to study the interaction with AgNP. The effect of AgNP to alkaline phosphatase was assayed in MOPS by determining enzyme activity, using fluorescently linked 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate disodium salt as substrate .
In fish cell exposures, to identify the proteins binding to AgNP in cells, AgNP-protein corona complexes were recovered from intact subcellular compartments isolated by subcellular fractionation and proteins lysed from the AgNP to be detected by mass spectrometry. The identified proteins were analyzed by DAVID (http://david.abcc.ncifcrf.gov/), a protein ontology analysis tool. Among the identified proteins, Na+/K+-ATPase (Sigma-Aldrich, No. A7510) was selected to study the interaction of AgNP with intracellular proteins. The effect of AgNP on Na+/K+-ATPase activity was measured in a buffer containing 20 mM Tris–HCl, 0.60 mM EDTA, 5 mM MgCl2, 3 mM KCl and 133 mM NaCl (pH 7.8) and substrate, ATP (Sigma-Aldrich, No. A9062) .
All data were analyzed by GraphPad Prism (version 5.02 for Windows, USA). Fluorescent units obtained in the cell assays were converted to percent viability of control cells. Concentrations leading to 10% and 50% effect (EC10s, EC50s) were determined by nonlinear regression sigmoidal dose–response curve fitting using the Hill slope equation, and were presented as the mean of three independent experiments, with a 95% confidence interval. Data presented as mean ± standard deviation, n = 3.
YY and XL carried out the study and analyzed data. YY and KS wrote the manuscript. LS, MJFS, SP, RB, and KS participated in the design of the study and revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
We thank D. Kistler (Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland) for ICP-MS measurements.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
This research was part of “Interaction of metal nanoparticles with aquatic organisms (MeNanoqa)” project (Project Number: 406440-131240), which was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation in the framework of the Swiss National Research Program 64 (NRP 64) “Opportunities and Risks of Nanomaterials”.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Kaegi R, Sinnet B, Zuleeg S, Hagendorfer H, Mueller E, Vonbank R, Boller M, Burkhardt M. Release of silver nanoparticles from outdoor facades. Environ Pollut. 2010;158:2900–5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Collin B, Auffan M, Johnson AC, Kaur I, Keller AA, Lazareva A, Lead JR, Ma X, Merrifield RC, Svendsen C, et al. Environmental release, fate and ecotoxicological effects of manufactured ceria nanomaterials. Environ Sci Nano. 2014;1:533–48.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fabrega J, Luoma SN, Tyler CR, Galloway TS, Lead JR. Silver nanoparticles behaviour and effects in the aquatic environment. Environ Int. 2011;37:517–31.Google Scholar
- Schultz AG, Boyle D, Chamot D, Ong KJ, Wilkinson KJ, McGeer JC, Sunahara G, Goss GG. Aquatic toxicity of manufactured nanomaterials: challenges and recommendations for future toxicity testing. Environ Chem. 2014;11:207–26.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yang X, Gondikas AP, Marinakos SM, Auffan M, Liu J, Hsu-Kim H, Meyer JN. Mechanism of silver nanoparticle toxicity is dependent on dissolved silver and surface coating in Caenorhabditis elegans. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;46:1119–27.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Park E-J, Yi J, Kim Y, Choi K, Park K. Silver nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity by a Trojan-horse type mechanism. Toxicol In Vitro. 2010;24:872–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fleischer A, O’Neill MA, Ehwald R. The pore size of non-graminaceous plant cell walls is rapidly decreased by borate ester cross-linking of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II. Plant Physiol. 1999;121:829–38.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Taylor NS, Merrifield R, Williams TD, Chipman JK, Lead JR, Viant MR. Molecular toxicity of cerium oxide nanoparticles to the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is associated with supra-environmental exposure concentrations. Nanotoxicology. 2016;10:32–41.Google Scholar
- Wang Y, Miao AJ, Luo J, Wei ZB, Zhu JJ, Yang LY. Bioaccumulation of CdTe quantum dots in a freshwater alga Ochromonas danica: a kinetics study. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:10601–10.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Leclerc S, Wilkinson KJ. Bioaccumulation of nanosilver by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii—nanoparticle or the free ion? Environ Sci Technol. 2014;48:358–64.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Piccapietra F, Allué CG, Sigg L, Behra R. Intracellular silver accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii upon exposure to carbonate coated silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:7390–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Röhder LA, Brandt T, Sigg L, Behra R. Influence of agglomeration of cerium oxide nanoparticles and speciation of cerium(III) on short term effects to the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Aquat Toxicol. 2014;152:121–30.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hoecke KV, Quik JTK, Mankiewicz-Boczek J, Schamphelaere KACD, Elsaesser A, Meeren PVd, Barnes C, McKerr G, Howard CV, Meent DVD, et al. Fate and effects of CeO2 nanoparticles in aquatic ecotoxicity tests. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:4537–46.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Behra R, Sigg L, Clift MJD, Herzog F, Minghetti M, Johnston B, Petri-Fink A, Rothen-Rutishauser B. Bioavailability of silver nanoparticles and ions: from a chemical and biochemical perspective. J R Soc Interface. 2013;10:20130396.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Scown TM, Goodhead RM, Johnston BD, Moger J, Baalousha M, Lead JR, van Aerle R, Iguchi T, Tyler CR. Assessment of cultured fish hepatocytes for studying cellular uptake and (eco)toxicity of nanoparticles. Environ Chem. 2010;7:36–49.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stern S, Adiseshaiah P, Crist R. Autophagy and lysosomal dysfunction as emerging mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2012;9:20.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Canton I, Battaglia G. Endocytosis at the nanoscale. Chem Soc Rev. 2012;41:2718–39.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nel AE, Madler L, Velegol D, Xia T, Hoek EMV, Somasundaran P, Klaessig F, Castranova V, Thompson M. Understanding biophysicochemical interactions at the nano-bio interface. Nat Mater. 2009;8:543–57.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Monopoli MP, Walczyk D, Campbell A, Elia G, Lynch I, Baldelli Bombelli F, Dawson KA. Physical–chemical aspects of protein corona: relevance to in vitro and in vivo biological impacts of nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:2525–34.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lynch I, Dawson KA, Lead JR, Valsami-Jones E. Chapter 4-macromolecular coronas and their importance in nanotoxicology and nanoecotoxicology. Front Nanosci. 2014;7:127–56.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schirmer K. Chapter 6-mechanisms of nanotoxicity. Front Nanosci. 2014;7:195–221.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wigginton NS, Wigginton NS. Binding of silver nanoparticles to bacterial proteins depends on surface modifications and inhibits enzymatic activity. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:2163–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Aleksandr K, Feng D, Pengyu C, Monika M, Anne K, Pu Chun K. Interaction of firefly luciferase and silver nanoparticles and its impact on enzyme activity. Nanotechnology. 2013;24:345101.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bertoli F, Davies G-L, Monopoli MP, Moloney M, Gun’ko YK, Salvati A, Dawson KA. Magnetic nanoparticles to recover cellular organelles and study the time resolved nanoparticle-cell interactome throughout uptake. Small. 2014;10:3307–15.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hofmann D, Tenzer S, Bannwarth MB, Messerschmidt C, Glaser S-F, Schild H, Landfester K, Mailänder V. Mass spectrometry and imaging analysis of nanoparticle-containing vesicles provide a mechanistic insight into cellular trafficking. ACS Nano. 2014;8:10077–88.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li X, Schirmer K, Bernard L, Sigg L, Pillai S, Behra R. Silver nanoparticle toxicity and association with the alga Euglena gracilis. Environ Sci Nano. 2015;2:594–602.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yue Y, Behra R, Sigg L, Fernández Freire P, Pillai S, Schirmer K. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles to a fish gill cell line: role of medium composition. Nanotoxicology. 2015;9:54–63.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yue Y, Behra R, Sigg L, Suter MJF, Pillai S, Schirmer K. Silver nanoparticle-protein interactions in intact rainbow trout gill cells. Environ Sci Nano. 2016;3:1174–85.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li X. Interactions of silver and polystyrene nanoparticles with algae. EPFL Ph.D. Thesis. 2015.Google Scholar
- Bols NC, Barlian A, Chirinotrejo M, Caldwell SJ, Goegan P, Lee LEJ. Development of a cell-line from primary cultures of rainbow-trout, Oncorhyrzchus mykiss (Walbaum), gills. J Fish Dis. 1994;17:601–11.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nakano Y, Urade Y, Urade R, Kitaoka S. Isolation, purification, and characterization of the pellicle of Euglena gracilisz. J Bioch. 1987;102:1053–63.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schirmer K, Chan AGJ, Greenberg BM, Dixon DG, Bols NC. Methodology for demonstrating and measuring the photocytotoxicity of fluoranthene to fish cells in culture. Toxicol In Vitro. 1997;11:107–19.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dayeh VR, Schirmer K, Bols NC. Applying whole-water samples directly to fish cell cultures in order to evaluate the toxicity of industrial effluent. Water Res. 2002;36:3727–38.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Leibovitz A. The growth and maintenance of tissue–cell cultures in free gas exchange with the atmosphere. Am J Epidemiol. 1963;78:173–80.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sigg L, Behra R, Groh K, Isaacson C, Odzak N, Piccapietra F, Rohder L, Schug H, Yue Y, Schirmer K. Chemical aspects of nanoparticle ecotoxicology. Chimia. 2014;68:806–11.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Setyawati MI, Yuan X, Xie J, Leong DT. The influence of lysosomal stability of silver nanomaterials on their toxicity to human cells. Biomaterials. 2014;35:6707–15.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang Z, Liu S, Ma J, Qu G, Wang X, Yu S, He J, Liu J, Xia T, Jiang G-B. Silver nanoparticles induced RNA polymerase-silver binding and RNA transcription inhibition in erythroid progenitor cells. ACS Nano. 2013;7:4171–86.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu W, Wu Y, Wang C, Li HC, Wang T, Liao CY, Cui L, Zhou QF, Yan B, Jiang GB. Impact of silver nanoparticles on human cells: effect of particle size. Nanotoxicology. 2010;4:319–30.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fortin C, Campbell PGC. Silver uptake by the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in relation to chemical speciation: influence of chloride. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2000;19:2769–78.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee D-Y, Fortin C, Campbell PGC. Influence of chloride on silver uptake by two green algae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2004;23:1012–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pillai S, Behra R, Nestler H, Suter MJF, Sigg L, Schirmer K. Linking toxicity and adaptive responses across the transcriptome, proteome, and phenotype of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exposed to silver. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2014;111:3490–5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bury NR, Hogstrand C. Influence of Chloride and Metals on Silver Bioavailability to Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Yolk-Sac Fry. Environ Sci Technol. 2002;36:2884–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wood CM. 1-Silver. In: Chris M, Wood APF, Brauner CJ, editors. Homeostasis and toxicology of non-essential metals. Cambridge: Academic Press; 2011. p. 1–65.Google Scholar
- Bondarenko O, Juganson K, Ivask A, Kasemets K, Mortimer M, Kahru A. Toxicity of Ag, CuO and ZnO nanoparticles to selected environmentally relevant test organisms and mammalian cells in vitro: a critical review. Arch Toxicol. 2013;87:1181–200.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Connolly M, Fernandez-Cruz ML, Quesada-Garcia A, Alte L, Segner H, Navas MJ. Comparative cytotoxicity study of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a Variety of rainbow trout cell lines (RTL-W1, RTH-149, RTG-2) and primary hepatocytes. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12:5386–405.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Minghetti M, Schirmer K. Effect of media composition on bioavailability and toxicity of silver and silver nanoparticles in fish intestinal cells (RTgutGC). Nanotoxicology. 2016;10:1526–34.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sanderson H, Johnson DJ, Wilson CJ, Brain RA, Solomon KR. Probabilistic hazard assessment of environmentally occurring pharmaceuticals toxicity to fish, daphnids and algae by ECOSAR screening. Toxicol Lett. 2003;144:383–95.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jemec A, Kahru A, Potthoff A, Drobne D, Heinlaan M, Böhme S, Geppert M, Novak S, Schirmer K, Rekulapally R, et al. An interlaboratory comparison of nanosilver characterisation and hazard identification: harmonising techniques for high quality data. Environ Int. 2016;87:20–32.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hinderliter P, Minard K, Orr G, Chrisler W, Thrall B, Pounds J, Teeguarden J. ISDD: a computational model of particle sedimentation, diffusion and target cell dosimetry for in vitro toxicity studies. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2010;7:36.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Teeguarden JG, Hinderliter PM, Orr G, Thrall BD, Pounds JG. Particokinetics in vitro: dosimetry considerations for in vitro nanoparticle toxicity assessments. Toxicol Sci. 2007;95:300–12.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Busch W, Bastian S, Trahorsch U, Iwe M, Kühnel D, Meißner T, Springer A, Gelinsky M, Richter V, Ikonomidou C, et al. Internalisation of engineered nanoparticles into mammalian cells in vitro: influence of cell type and particle properties. J Nanopart Res. 2011;13:293–310.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- García-Alonso J, Khan FR, Misra SK, Turmaine M, Smith BD, Rainbow PS, Luoma SN, Valsami-Jones E. Cellular internalization of silver nanoparticles in gut epithelia of the estuarine polychaete nereis diversicolor. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:4630–6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Greulich C, Diendorf J, Simon T, Eggeler G, Epple M, Köller M. Uptake and intracellular distribution of silver nanoparticles in human mesenchymal stem cells. Acta Biomater. 2011;7:347–54.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jansson M, Olsson H, Pettersson K. Phosphatases; origin, characteristics and function in lakes. In Phosphorus in freshwater ecosystems. Berlin: Springer; 1988. p. 157–75.Google Scholar
- Rier ST, Kuehn KA, Francoeur SN. Algal regulation of extracellular enzyme activity in stream microbial communities associated with inert substrata and detritus. J North Am Benthol Soc. 2007;26:439–49.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rose C, Axler RP. Uses of alkaline phosphatase activity in evaluating phytoplankton community phosphorus deficiency. Hydrobiologia. 1997;361:145–56.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gil-Allué C, Schirmer K, Tlili A, Gessner MO, Behra R. Silver nanoparticle effects on stream periphyton during short-term exposures. Environ Sci Technol. 2015;49:1165–72.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tlili A, Cornut J, Behra R, Gil-Allué C, Gessner MO. Harmful effects of silver nanoparticles on a complex detrital model system. Nanotoxicology. 2016;10:728–35.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stewart TJ, Traber J, Kroll A, Behra R, Sigg L. Characterization of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from periphyton using liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection—organic nitrogen detection (LC-OCD-OND). Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2013;20:3214–23.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schug H, Isaacson CW, Sigg L, Ammann AA, Schirmer K. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles and uv radiation on extracellular enzyme activity of intact heterotrophic biofilms. Environ Sci Technol. 2014;48:11620–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schultz AG, Ong KJ, MacCormack T, Ma G, Veinot JGC, Goss Goss GG. Silver nanoparticles inhibit sodium uptake in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:10295–301.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Le Faucheur S, Behra R, Sigg L. Phytochelatin induction, cadmium accumulation, and algal sensitivity to free cadmium ion in Scenedesmus vacuolatus. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005;24:1731–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar